Types of fire
As far as safety is concerned, there are two types of fire;
a) controlled (safe) fire.
- There is a good control on the size, duration, temperature, smoke, and fumes of fire.
- This is used in our daily life such as cooking, heating (by gas, coal or kerosene), car, airplane, and rocket engines.
- It requires the presence of air (oxygen), fuel and heat (ignition source).
- These components are termed the fire-triangle.
b) uncontrolled (dangerous) fire.
- There is no control on the size, duration, temperature (1000 oC or more), smoke and fumes of fire.
- This type of fire occurs due to the accidental (or due to a criminal act) spread of fire to catch combustible materials.
- In addition to oxygen, fuel and heat, this type of fire require an uninhibited chain reaction.
- In an uninhibited chain, reaction burning continues and may even accelerate.
- This chain reaction occurs due to the breakdown and recombination of the molecules that will add to the fuel of the fire.
Effects of uncontrolled fire
- a) human loss: burning from extreme heat; suffocation from smoke and fumes and death
- b) Structural damage: damage to labs, offices, and buildings
- c) Material damage: damage to instruments, equipment, furniture, and supplies
- d) Disruption of work
- e) Financial losses
Fire Safety Equipments and devices.
- Smoke & heat detectors (usually in the ceiling)
- Fire and emergency alarms (switched on by emergency buttons or handles)
- Fire and emergency lights (red)
- Water sprinklers (usually in the ceiling)
- Fire extinguishers (various types according to class of fire)
- Water hydrants with attached hose
- Fire blanket (to wrap around the burned person or to cover devices on fire)
- Emergency exits signs and lights
- Fire and emergency exits
- Fire and emergency stairs and escapes
- Firebreak area (for assembly of people)