Fire Prevention Requirements
Fire Prevention Plans
Write a fire prevention plan for each facility. Include a list of major workplace fire hazards; potential ignition sources; the type of fire suppression equipment of systems appropriate to control a fire; assignments of responsibilities for maintaining the equipment and systems; personnel responsible for controlling the fuel source hazards; and housekeeping procedures, including the removal of waste materials. Inform employees of the fire hazards of the materials and processes to which they are exposed. Brief new employees on the parts of the plan that is essential for their protection and emergency evacuations. Keep the written plan in the workplace and make it available for employee review. Provide additional training for personnel assigned tasks that require them to remain in a facility during a fire emergency. The work area where these individuals remain during a fire emergency must be evaluated as an area of refuge in accordance with NFPA 101, Life Safety Code
Maintain good housekeeping. Promptly remove and dispose of accumulations of combustible scrap and debris in all areas of the job site. Use self-closing metal containers to collect waste saturated with flammable or combustible liquids. At all facilities, properly collect, store, and remove combustible and flammable waste products at the end of each workday or at the end of each work shift. Use only noncombustible or UL labeled, nonmetallic containers to dispose of waste and rubbish. Keep combustible items separate from each other and from noncombustible items. Label the contents of containers.
Don’t allow rubbish and waste to accumulate. Prevent the growth of tall dry grass, brush, and weeds adjacent to facilities with a maximum 3-foot fire break. Place combustible waste materials outdoors to await subsequent disposal, at least 20 feet from a structure.
Prohibit smoking and other sources of ignition in storage areas for flammable or explosive materials or near operations Reclamation Safety and Health Standards 10-2 October 2009 that constitute a fire hazard. Conspicuously post “NO SMOKING OR OPEN FLAMES” in all such areas.
Open Flame Devices
Do not leave fires and open flame devices, such as incinerators, torches, and controlled fires, unattended unless they have automatic temperature control and cutoff devices.
Cleaning and Degreasing
Do not use gasoline or liquids with a flashpoint below 100 degrees Fahrenheit for cleaning and degreasing. Use only approved cleaners specifically for the type of equipment or material
Maintain adequate clearance between heating facilities and combustible materials.
Explosive Gases and Vapors
Do not use open flames or heating elements where flammable gases or vapors may be present.
Buildings and Structures
Ensure non-fire-resistive buildings or structures are at least 25 feet apart. However, consider a group of non-fire resistive buildings with a total ground floor area of no more than 2,000 square feet as one building for this purpose, provided that each building in the group is at least 10 feet away, on each side, from other buildings.
Ensure that exits from all buildings, shops, and other facilities in which personnel work, or which are open to the public, are sufficiently well marked and lighted. Evaluate the adequacy of the means of exit, based on NFPA 101 Life Safety Code.
When justified by the size or nature of the operation, security services personnel or other assigned personnel must frequently inspect buildings, storage areas, employee quarters, and work areas.
Requirements for Heating Devices
The following requirements must be met prior to the use of heating devices: a.
Use only heating devices accepted by the area/office manager. Include the following items in acceptance requests:
- The proposed placement, including distance from combustibles.
- The service, maintenance, and surveillance schedules.
- The proposed fuel storage and refueling system.
- The method for prompt detection of gaseous contamination or oxygen deficiency.
Permanently affix a data plate to each heater that provides the following information:
- Required clearances.
- Ventilation requirements.
- Fuel type and input pressure.
- Lighting and extinguishing instructions.
- Electrical power supply characteristics.
Mark heaters that are not suitable for use on wood floors and do not place them on combustible materials. When using such heaters, rest them on appropriate noncombustible material equivalent to at least 1 inch of concrete. The noncombustible material must extend at least 2 feet beyond the heater in all directions.
Do not use heaters near covers such as tarpaulins, canvas, or similar combustible materials. Locate heaters at least 10 feet away from these and similar materials. Securely fasten or tie down the coverings.
Place heaters on level surfaces to prevent tipping. f. Installation. Install, vent, operate and maintain heaters in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions.
Install spark arresters on smokestacks that could otherwise permit sparks to escape.
Carbon monoxide monitors.
Facilities, where heating devices use combustible fuel, require carbon monoxide (CO), monitors
Ground the non-current carrying metal parts of cord and plug connected heaters.
Portable Space Heaters
Use only electric-powered portable space heaters equipped with tip-over safety devices and thermostatic controls in office spaces. Maintain 3 feet of clearance from combustible materials.
The following requirements govern the use of liquid-fueled heaters:
General – Heaters may be either direct or indirect fired. Kerosene, stove oil, fuel oil, and diesel oil are permissible fuels. The flashpoint of the fuel must be at least 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
Stability – Securely anchor liquid-fueled heaters or locate them to prevent tipping.
Design – Equip liquid-fueled heaters with an automatic flame loss device that will stop the flow of fuel when the flame is extinguished. Reclamation Safety and Health Standards 10-4 October 2009
Fueling – Train employees tasked with fueling to be thoroughly familiar with the manufacturer’s heater operation and fueling instructions. Before fueling, extinguish the heater and permit it to cool until cool to touch. Store fuel in, and dispense fuel from, approved flammable liquid containers.
Maintenance – Maintain heaters in a good operating condition in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Natural Gas Heaters
The following requirements apply to the use of natural gas heaters:
General – Install, operate, d maintain natural gas heaters in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Stability – Securely anchor heaters or locate to prevent tipping.
Piping – Leak-test piping, tubing, or hose after installation, using a safe detection means, such as soap suds. When using flexible gas supply lines, they must not be more than 5 feet long. Supply lines and hose must have a minimum working gauge pressure of 350 pounds per square inch, a minimum burst gauge pressure of 1,750 pounds per square inch, and a pull test of 400 pounds without leakage.
Fuel Cutoff – Equip heaters with an automatic flame loss device that will shut off the gas supply if the flame or pilot light is extinguished.
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Heaters
The following requirements apply to the use of LPG heaters:
General – Install, operate, and maintain LPG heaters in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Do not use, locate, or store LPG containers and heating devices below grade or in confined spaces.
Protection – Protect heaters, when in use, from damage by location, anchoring, or barricading.
Testing – Leak-test piping, tubing, hoses, and flexible hose connections following installation, using a means such as soap suds. Use only flexible gas supply lines that are less than 5 feet long. Supply lines and hose must have a minimum working gauge pressure of 350 pounds per square inch, a minimum burst gauge pressure of 1,750 pounds per square inch, and a pull test of 400 pounds without leakage.
Hoses – Use only a hose labeled “LP-gas” or “LPG.” Hoses must have a minimum working gauge pressure of 350 pounds per square inch and a minimum burst gauge pressure of 1,750 pounds per square inch. Keep the hose as short as practical, although long enough to comply with specified safe spacing requirements without kinking or straining the hose or causing it to be close enough to a burner to be damaged by heat.
Hose Connections – The design capability of hose assemblies, after the application of connections, must withstand a pressure of at least 700 pounds per square inch. Do not leak-test such assemblies at pressures higher than the working pressure (350 pounds per square inch minimum) of the hose.
Regulator – Equip heaters with an approved regulator between the cylinder and the supply line.
Check Valve – Provide fuel cylinder connectors with an excess flow check to minimize the flow of gas in case of fuel line ruptures.
Fuel Cutoff – Equip heaters with an automatic flame loss device that will shut off the gas supply if the flame or pilot light is extinguished. i. Fuel Supply in Buildings. Allow gas cylinders or containers in buildings or structures only in accordance with the following provisions:
1. Keep the maximum water capacity of individual cylinders to 245 pounds (nominal 100 pounds LPG capacity) or less.
2. For temporary heating, such as curing concrete, drying materials, or similar uses, keep heaters (other than integral heater-container units) at least 6 feet away from any LPG container. However, you may use heaters specifically designed for attachment to the LPG container or to a supporting structure with connecting hose less than 6 feet long, provided the heater does not directly radiate heat onto the container. Do not direct blower-type or radiant heaters toward any LPG container that is within 20 feet of the heater.
3. Keep LPG supply containers at least 20 feet apart when two or more heaters are in an unpartitioned area on the same floor.
4. LPG containers manifolded together supplying one or more heaters in an unpartitioned area on the same floor must not exceed 300-pound nominal LPG capacity. Keep such manifolds at least 20 feet apart.
5. Containers may be manifolded together on floors where heaters are not connected for use, for connection to one or more heaters located on another floor, provided that: (a) the total nominal capacity of containers connected to any one manifold does not exceed 1,000 pounds LPG and (b) where more than one manifold having a nominal capacity exceeding 300 pounds LPG is located in the same unpartitioned area, the manifolds must be at least 50 feet apart.
Storage of Containers – Store LPG containers not in use outside, in accordance with the minimum distances identified in the section on material handling, storage, and disposal.
The following restrictions apply to the use of heating devices:
Open Flame-Type Heaters – Do not use open flame-type heating devices with exposed fuel below the flame.
Lubrication or Service Areas – You may install an approved-type heater in lubrication or service areas where employees do not dispense or transfer flammable liquids, only if the bottom of the heater is at least 18 inches above the floor and protected from damage. If employees dispense flammable liquids in such areas, the heater must be of a type approved for garages and installed at least 8 feet above the floor.