NEBOSH GC2 Revision Notes

Element 1:- Work Equipment Hazards and Control

Precautions in maintenance of Work Equipment

  • Use of permit to work
  • Isolation/locking off
  • Dissipation of stored energy
  • Segregation
  • Safe means of access
  • Use of PPE
  • Competent personnel
  • Ensure safe environment (allow to cool)

Hazards of maintenance work opposite of above plus

  • Chemicals
  • Biological
  • Asbestos
  • Hot or cold
  • Pressure to complete work

Mechanical Hazards of Machinery

  • Entanglement
  • Traps
  • Impact
  • Contact
  • Ejection


Draw examples of entanglement, crushing, drawing in, shear

Non-Mechanical Hazards of Machinery

  • Chemical/biological hazards
  • Dust and fumes
  • Ergonomics
  • Electricity
  • Fire/explosion
  • Hazardous substances
  • Manual handling
  • Noise
  • Radiation
  • Stability of machine
  • Temperature extremes
  • Ultra violet light
  • Vibration

Office machinery: – Photocopier and Shredder

Common hazards

  • Electrical
  • Ergonomic
  • Noise
  • Stability of machine

Other Hazards

PhotocopierDocument shredder
Drawing inDrawing in to cutters
Trap between moving partsContact with cutters
Ultra violet light

Manufacturing/Maintenance Machinery: Bench top grinder/Pedestal drill

  • Common Hazards
  • Electricity
  • Ergonomics
  • Dust
  • Stability of machine

Other hazards

Bench top grinderPedestal drill
Contact with rotating wheelEntanglement
Drawing into the trap between the tool rest and wheelContact (Stabbing/puncture)
Ejected parts of wheel or workpieceImpact from an unsecured workpiece
Fire and sparksCutting from swarf
VibrationEjection of a broken bit or materials
Manual handling

Agricultural/Horticultural Machinery:- Cylinder mower and strimmer

 Common Hazards

  • Biological e.g. animal droppings
  • Chemicals e.g. herbicides
  • Electrical
  • Fire/explosion if petrol
  • Ergonomics
  • Manual handling
  • Noise and vibration
  • Ejection of materials

Other Hazards

Cylinder mowerStrimmer
Contact with rotating bladesContact with cutter
Entanglement in bladesEntanglement with cutter

Retail Machinery:- Waste Compactor/Checkout Conveyor

Common hazards

  • Electricity
  • Ergonomics
  • Manual handling

Other Hazards

Waste CompactorCheckout Conveyor
ImpactDrawing in traps
CrushNon-ionising radiation (Scanner)
Biological infection from waste

Construction Machinery:- Cement Mixer/Circular Saw 

Common Hazards

  • Dust
  • Electricity
  • Stability of machine
  • Ergonomics
  • Trapping between fixed and moving parts
  • Noise

Other Hazards

Cement MixerCircular Saw
EntanglementDrawing into rotating blade
Manual handlingEjection of materials

Machinery Hierarchy of Controls

  • Fixed guards
  • Other guards or protection devices
  • Protective devices (Jigs, Holders, Push Sticks)
  • Information, Instruction, Training and Supervision

Fixed Guards:- A physical barrier not connected to machine controls which has no moving parts and requires a tool to remove it

Fixed Guards

Minimal maintenanceNot linked to machine controls
Only defeated by deliberate actNo protection when removed
Only visual inspectionAccess to dangerous parts when removed
May protect against other hazards e.g. noise, dust, ejection of materialsMore difficult to remove not practical when frequent access required
 Tends to be left unfixed when frequent access required
 May hamper visibility

Interlock Guard:- Linked to the machine controls so that when the machine is in a dangerous condition the guard cannot be opened or opening the guard causes the machine to become safe

Interlock Guard

Allow safe access for feeding materialsIncrease the complexity of the machine
Convenient to useDifficult to test and maintain
Less likely to be deliberately defeatedMay need a brake or time delay
Speeds up operationsComponents could fail in service
 Regular maintenance required
 May not fail to safety

Element 2:- Movement of People and Materials

Hazards to pedestrians

  • Slips, trips and falls on same level
  • Falls from height
  • Collisions with moving vehicles

Precautions for accidents on Staircases

  • Removal of obstructions
  • Provision of non-slip surfaces
  • Reflective edging
  • Adequate lighting
  • Effective maintenance
  • Use of signs
  • Width
  • Provision of handrails
  • Dimensions treads and risers
  • Landings
  • Consider disabled persons
  • Avoid the need to carry heavy objects up and down

Causes of accidents on staircases opposite of above

Accidents on walkways almost the same

Hazards of fork trucks

  • Overturning
  • Overloading
  • Loss of loads
  • Collision with other vehicles
  • Collision with pedestrians
  • Explosions and fire

Why can trucks overturn

  • Travelling on gradients that are too steep
  • Travelling forwards when descending slopes
  • Overloaded or unevenly loaded
  • Travelling over soft or uneven ground
  • Travelling over slippery surfaces
  • Travelling too fast
  • Striking kerbs or other edges
  • Not suitable for the task
  • Carrying loads at a dangerous heights

To avoid overturning opposite of above

Parking of fork trucks

  • Put in neutral
  • Put on handbrake
  • Switch off engine
  • Remove key
  • Give key to appropriate person
  • Forks on floor
  • Mast slightly forward
  • Parked in suitable location
  • No blocking of exits

Additional hazards of electric fork trucks

  • Hydrogen gas released during battery charging
  • Electricity problems
  • Manual handling of liquids
  • Corrosive acids
  • They are quiet

Driver selection

  • Suitable age
  • Medical examination
  • Routine medical checks at regular intervals
  • Assessment after prolonged absences
  • Capable of Training
  • Refresher training

Safety of pedestrians in vehicle moving areas

  • Segregation
  • Suitable parking areas
  • Avoid reversing if possible
  • One-way systems
  • Avoid sharp or blind bends
  • Sufficiently wide entrances and gateways
  • Vision aids
  • Speed limits
  • Signallers (Banksmen)
  • Protection from fumes
  • Protection from materials falling off
  • High visibility jackets

Element 3:- Manual and Mechanical Handling Hazards

Manual Handling Injuries

  • External:- Cuts, bruises, abrasions, crush injuries
  • Internal:- Strains, Tears, Hernias

Hierarchy to reduce handling injuries

  • Avoid handling
  • Assess
  • Implement controls

Manual Handling Risk Assessment


  • Weight
  • Size
  • Shape
  • Rigidity
  • Difficult to grasp
  • Unstable
  • Sharp, hot, cold etc.


  • Sex
  • Stature
  • Individual capability
  • Training
  • Persons assessment of own capability


  • Holding away from trunk
  • Twisting
  • Stooping
  • Reaching upwards
  • Large vertical movement
  • Long carrying distances
  • Strenuous pushing or pulling
  • Unpredictable movement of loads
  • Repetitive handling
  • Insufficient rest or recovery
  • Work rate imposed by the process
  • Environment
  • Constraints on posture
  • Poor floors
  • Variations in levels
  • Hot/Cold/ humid conditions
  • Poor lighting

Correct Kinetic Handling Technique

  • Assess the load
  • Close to load as possible
  • Secure grip
  • Suitable feet position
  • Back straight
  • Bend the knees
  • Load close to the body
  • Smooth movement


Trapping in drive mechanismsGuards, No loose clothing
Traps, Nips, Drawing inPop out rollers, nip guards
Sharp edgesEdge protection, eliminate edges
Items jamming conveyorAdequate design
Falling objectsEdge guards, barriers
Riding or crossing conveyorBridges, complete enclosure
Impact with objectsHelmets, padding
NoiseHearing protection
Manual handlingMechanical handling
Electrical hazardsSuitable electrical equipment

Types of Cranes

  • Mobile
  • Tower
  • Gantry
  • Overhead

Cranes may fail because of

  • Overturning
  • Overloading
  • Unsuitable support or inadequate bases for crane
  • Loss of load
  • Failure of load
  • Lack of maintenance
  • Failure of load bearing part

Safe use of Cranes

  • Suitable crane
  • Suitable ground conditions
  • Use of outriggers
  • Avoidance of obstructions
  • Care near overhead power lines
  • Designated and protected area
  • Suitable and tested lifting tackle
  • Correct slinging technique
  • Competent personnel
  • Load near ground if travelling
  • Good visibility
  • Good communications
  • Suitable storage for fuels etc

Hazards opposite of above plus

Use of crane in high winds

Employee safety during lifting

  • Trained personnel
  • Properly trained equipment
  • Equipment has had statutory inspections
  • Warning of lift taking place
  • No employee to walk under load
  • Ensure load is secure
  • SWL of crane and tackle not exceeded
  • Lifted to correct height
  • Moved at appropriate speed
  • Adequate supervision
  • Lifting Accessories (Tackle)

Main Hazards

  • Overloading/used above safe working load
  • Incorrect use e.g. too wide an angle with chains
  • Insecure attachment of load
  • Damage to tackle
  • Incorrect slinging method
  • Failure to examine and inspect pre-use
  • Incompetent staff

Precautions opposite of above

Element 4:- Chemical and biological health hazards and controls

Target Organs:- A part of the body which sustains an adverse effect when it is exposed to or by contaminated by a particular harmful agent

Examples:-  Mercury, Lead the brain

Asbestos, Ammonia the Lungs

Bodies defences against dust

  • The hair and wetness of the nose
  • The change of direction of the larynx
  • Sneezing and coughing
  • The hair cells in the respiratory tract
  • Tears and blinking of the eyes


Symptoms:- Blisters, Inflammation, Dryness, reddening, cracking of skin

Protective measures against dermatitis

  • Eliminate the substance
  • Substitution of the substance
  • Barrier creams,
  • Good hygiene practices
  • PPE

Routes of entry in the body

  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Absorption
  • Direct entry
  • Injection

Acute effects:- Adverse health effects resulting from single or short term exposure which is usually reversible e.g. Alcohol

Chronic:- Adverse health term effects resulting from prolonged or repeated exposure leading to a gradual often irreversible effects e.g. liver disease caused by Alcohol

Classification of Hazardous Substances

Irritant:- Non-corrosive substances which through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with skin or mucous membrane may cause inflammation e.g. Petrol

Corrosive:- Substances which on contact with living tissue may destroy it by burning e.g. acids

Harmful:- Substances which if swallowed, inhaled or penetrate the skin may cause damage to health

Very Toxic:- A poisonous substance which in low quantities may cause death, acute or chronic damage to health

Toxic:- A poisonous substance which in low quantities may cause death, acute or chronic damage to health

Carcinogenic:- Substances which cause disorders to cell growth that may lead to cancer

Information on Manufacturers Safety data sheets

  • Identification of the substance
  • Manufacturers information
  • Composition of the ingredients
  • First-aid precautions
  • Fire-fighting measures
  • Handling and storage
  • PPE
  • Disposal considerations
  • Transport information
  • Regulatory information

Grab Sampler (Chemical stain detector tube)

Draw it

Low costInaccurate
Takes little timePositioning of tube
Immediate resultOnly a snap shot
Little trainingInefficient
Information during spillageChemical use only
Good for coarse indicationSubstance specific

Hazardous substance risk assessment 5 steps as normal

Control of health hazards


Reduce by substitution


  • Total Enclosure
  • Segregate the people


  • Engineering Control (LEV)
  • Maintenance of controls
  • Change the work pattern or method
  • Hygiene and housekeeping



Emergency controls for spillage, air pollution etc.

  • Ventilation systems alarmed
  • PPE
  • Emergency showers, eye wash facilities
  • Booms, sawdust, spillage procedures
  • Evacuation procedures
  • Isolation of the area
  • Evacuation of the employees at risk
  • PPE for staff involved in clear up

 Local Exhaust Ventilation

Main Parts:- Hood, Ducting, Filter, Fan

Draw it

LEV becomes inefficient because of:-

  • Blocked filters
  • Lack of maintenance
  • Position of hood
  • Unauthorised alterations
  • Broken ducting
  • Wear of fan blades
  • Incorrect settings
  • Increased  contaminant level
  • Inadequate design
  • Failure of operators to use it

Checks opposite of above

Specific Agents


Strongly alkaline colourless gas with a pungent odour. It is a corrosive and can cause irritation to the eyes and upper respiratory tract in small concentrations. Large concentrations can cause blindness and fluid in the lungs. Eye protection and respiratory protection essential.


Main types:- Blue, Brown and  White

Diseases:- Asbestosis, Lung cancer, Mesothelioma


  • Pipe lagging
  • Wall and roof panels
  • Ceiling tiles
  • Textured coatings
  • Insulation materials
  • Gaskets
  • Brake linings

Carbon Dioxide

Colourless and odourless gas which is heavier than air. Low levels increases the rate of respiration and high levels depress the rate of respiration leading to unconsciousness and even death. Produced in fermentation process e.g. breweries.

Carbon Monoxide

Colourless and odourless and tasteless gas. Found where incomplete combustion occurs e.g. boilers, vehicle exhausts

Inhalation of the gas results in headache, drowsiness, flushed “pink” appearance and ultimately asphyxiation


A greenish toxic gas with a pungent smell which is highly irritant to the respiratory system.


Nuisance dust can cause asthma, bronchitis, emphysema and conditions such as asbestos, Silicosis.

Dust Identification

  • Visual signs of dust
  • Dust lamps
  • Static or personal sampling
  • Health surveillance

Control measures for dust

  • Elimination
  • Substitution e.g. pellets instead of powders
  • Enclosure of the process
  • Local exhaust ventilation
  • Vacuuming instead of sweeping
  • Damping down
  • Limiting time of exposure
  • Limiting numbers exposed
  • Respiratory protective equipment


A heavy, soft and easily worked metal. Can enter body by eating contaminated food but usually by breathing fumes or dust.

Acute lead poisoning can result in nausea, headaches, effects on the nervous system sometimes death in severe cases.

Organic Solvents

These dissolve other substances and are also used as cleaning and degreasing agents. They are volatile and evaporate quickly at room temperature so their vapours can be drawn into the lungs.

Acute effects are irritation of the eyes, skin, throat and lungs. Effects may be headaches, nausea, dizziness and loss of consciousness and in extreme cases in death.


Organic compounds widely used in industry for products such as spray painting of vehicles and production of polyurethane rubbers and foams.

Inflammation of the nasal passages and throat can lead to asthma.


Found in sand, granite etc. and the health hazard comes from breathing it in which can lead to the lung disease silicosis.

Biological Agents

Leptospirosis or Weils disease

Bacteria found in the urine of female rats and the most common source is in river water, sewers etc. Enters the body through puncture of the skin or ingestion. Attacks the kidneys and liver causing high temperatures and may be fatal.


An airborne bacterium found in water sources such as cooling towers, stagnant water etc. It is caused by inhalation of airborne droplets of water containing the legionella bacteria leading to a form of pneumonia i.e. breathing difficulties, high temperature and possible death. Those at greatest risk are middle aged smokers or elderly people with chest problems. Control measures involve temperature control and monitoring, avoiding “dead legs” legs in pipework, biocide treatment and effective cleaning and maintenance.


A disease of the liver and can cause high temperatures, nausea and jaundice. It is caused by hazardous substances or a virus. Health workers and those handling bodily fluids are most at risk. The control measures involve inoculation and good hygiene practices.

Control measures for Biological Hazards

  • Cleaning and disinfection
  • Water treatment
  • Vermin control
  • Containment of the biological agent
  • Avoidance of sharp implements
  • Proper disposal of contaminated waste
  • Immunisation
  • Persona hygiene
  • PPE

Waste Storage

  • Sufficient storage area
  • Clearly the label the storage area
  • Ensure storage area secure
  • Protect storage area with bunds etc.
  • Store different types of waste separately
  • Never store incompatible waste together
  • Select appropriate containers
  • Keep quantities of waste to a minimum
  • Protect waste from the elements

Element 5:- Physical and psychological hazards


The study of the relationship between workers and their environment, work equipment and work task.

Work Related Upper Limb Disorders (WRULDs)

Causes of WRULDs

  • Repetitive finger, hand or arm movements
  • Twisting movements
  • Squeezing
  • Hammering
  • Pushing, pulling or reaching movements


  • Numbness in fingers
  • Pains in hands or arms
  • Restriction of joint movement
  • Soft tissue swelling

Factors to be considered during risk assessment

  • Force exerted
  • Frequency and duration of operation
  • Repetition of movement without rest or recovery
  • Posture
  • Constraints on space
  • Environment

Improve above plus:-

  • Mechanise task
  • Use correct tools and equipment

Display Screen Equipment (DSEs)

Health effects

  • Upper limb pains and discomfort
  • Eye and eyesight effects
  • Epilepsy
  • Radiation effects on pregnant women
  • Fatigue and stress

Workstation requirements

  • Adequate lighting
  • Minimum noise
  • Ample legroom
  • Suitable screen at eye level
  • Suitable softwear
  • Keyboard
  • Work surface
  • Suitable work chair
  • Footrest if necessary

Health effects of remaining seated for a long time

  • Vertebral and muscular damage
  • High blood pressure
  • Circulation problems

Suitable Seat for sedentary workers

  • Good lumbar support
  • Good width and depth
  • Ability to adjust seat back and height
  • Stable base
  • Ability to swivel
  • Provision of arm rests

Welfare and Environment issues


  • Sufficient toilets
  • Washing facilities
  • Eating and changing facilities
  • Clothing storage
  • Seating
  • Rest areas
  • Arrangements for non-smokers

Working environment

  • Temperature
  • Ventilation
  • Lighting
  • Room dimensions
  • Suitable work stations and seating
  • Weather protection for outdoor workstations

Health effects of poor lighting

  • Eye strain
  • Headaches
  • Poor posture
  • Tripping over unseen objects
  • Increased likelihood of human error
  • Increased time to vacate work area

Factors to consider when assessing adequacy of lighting

  • The tasks being undertaking
  • The size and layout of the work area
  • The equipment used
  • Availability of natural light
  • Shift times/work patterns
  • Suitable number of artificial light
  • Contrast levels
  • Glare
  • Areas in shadow
  • Need for localised lighting
  • Maintenance of lighting
  • Adequate emergency lighting


Noise terminology

Frequency:- The number of wave fronts assign a point in one second measured in Hertz

Intensity:- The loudness of the noise

Decibel:- The sound pressure level

“A” Weighting:- A filter in the noise meter that equates the noise to how the human ear perceives the noise

Hearing Damage

StressNoise induced hearing loss
Temporary threshold shiftPermanent threshold shift
Temporary tinnitusPermanent tinnitus
Blast deafnessPrebyacusis

Noise Control


  • Design
  • Damping
  • Isolate
  • Maintenance


  • Screens and barriers
  • Enclosure
  • Absorption
  • Silencer

The Person

  • Distance
  • Time exposed
  • Information and training

Limitations on Personal Hearing Protection

  • Not worn correctly
  • Not fitted correctly
  • Not properly maintained
  • Uncomfortable or inconvenient to wear
  • Needs constant management commitment
  • May introduce secondary risks

Hand-Arm Vibration

Health Effects

  • Tingling in the hands and extremities
  • Numbness and blanching of the fingers
  • Swollen painful joints
  • Reduction in manual dexterity
  • Reduction in the sensation of touch

Control Measures


Reduce the degree of vibration

  • Select low vibration equipment
  • Select ergonomically designed equipment
  • Maintenance of equipment
  • Reduce grip and push force with work equipment
  • Reduce the time workers exposed
  • Introduce health surveillance
  • Gloves and heated pads
  • Information and training on the nature of risks

Work in a Hot Environment

Health effects   

  • Skin burns
  • Cataracts
  • Dehydration
  • Heat cramps
  • Headaches
  • Fainting


  • Medical pre-selection
  • Acclimatisation
  • Limit time of exposure
  • Cold drinks
  • PPE

Work in Cold Environment

Health effects

  • Hypothermia
  • Loss of concentration
  • Shivering
  • Frost bite


  • Medical pre-selection
  • Acclimatisation
  • Limit time of exposure
  • Hot drinks
  • Insulated clothing



TypeUse in Industry
InfraredHeating and brazing
LasersCutting, Bar code readers
MicrowavesFood preparation, Signal transmission

Health effects

  • Burns
  • Reddening of the skin
  • Cataracts
  • Arc eye
  • Temporary sterility

Ionising Radiation

TypeUse in Industry
AlphaSmoke detectors
BetaThickness testing
GammaNon-Destructive testing
NeutronBy product nuclear fission
Acute effects from high doseChronic Effects
Reddening of the skinCancers
Radiation sickness, Nausea, Vomiting, DiarrhoeaSterility
Hair lossHereditary defects
DeathEffects on unborn children

Control Measures

  • Time
  • Distance
  • Shielding


  • PPE
  • Environmental and personal monitoring
  • Correct disposal of radiation materials
  • Good hygiene practices
  • Training and supervision

Violence at work

Occupations at risk

  • Taxi drivers
  • Hospitals
  • Schools
  • Cash transactions
  • Delivery/collection of money

Control measures

  • Training and information
  • The environment
  • Design of the job
  • Communication
  • Lone working
  • Reporting and recording incidents


Physical EffectsPsychological effects
HeadachesIncreased anxiety
DizzinessReduced concentration
Aching neck and shouldersIrritability
Skin rashesSudden mood changes
Prone to infectionsInability to cope
Panic attacksReduced work output
Raised heart rateIncreased use of alcohol, etc
Increased blood pressurePoor sleep patterns
Heart disease
Stomach ulcers

Causes of Stress

  • Culture
  • Demands
  • Control
  • Relationships
  • Change
  • Role
  • Individual
  • Environment

Control measures for stress

  • Selecting suitable employees
  • Training
  • Clearly defined roles
  • Clearly work objectives
  • Comfortable working environment
  • Good lines of communication
  • Realistic work schedules
  • Employee involvement
  • Grievance procedure
  • Impartial investigation of stress
  • Management support

Element 6:- Electrical Hazards and Control

Main Hazards of Electricity

  • Burns
  • Shock
  • Arcing
  • Fire
  • Explosions

Secondary Effects of Electricity

  • Falls from height
  • Unintentional movement of machine
  • De-activation of control measures
  • Loss of information
  • Throw off

Health effects of Electricity on the body

  • Damage to nervous system
  • Irregular heartbeat (Fibrillation)
  • Internal burns
  • External burns
  • Muscular contractions
  • Stopping breathing
  • Stopping of the heart

Factors Influencing severity of electrical shock

  • Voltage
  • Current
  • Time
  • Conductivity or resistance
  • Current path
  • Action on finding someone in contact with electricity
  • Isolate the supply if possible
  • Summon help
  • Give first-aid if capable
  • Remain with casualty until emergency services arrive

Causes of Electrical Fire

  • Inadequate circuits
  • Overloaded circuits
  • Incorrect fuses
  • Damaged insulation
  • Loose connections
  • Flammable materials too close to electrical equipment
  • Overheating of cables

Safety of Portable Electrical Appliances

The appliance:-

  • Battery operated
  • Checked before use
  • Suitable selected equipment
  • Properly maintained equipment

The Lead:-

  • Ensure not run over by vehicles
  • Dragged over rough services
  • Trapped in machinery
  • Exposed to hot surfaces or corrosive chemicals
  • Continuous flexing

Joints, Connections and plugs:-

  • Makeshift temporary connections
  • Leads getting pulled out
  • Poor made connections
  • Fuse being replaced
  • Battery operated

Fuse:- A weak link designed to melt, breaking the circuit at excessive currents

Circuit Breakers:- Electromagnetic device which perform the same function as fuses i.e. break the circuit at excessive current although slightly faster

Earthing:- Electricity will always try reach earth and earthing means providing a path to earth lower than the human body

Isolation:- The disconnection and separation of the electrical equipment from every source of electrical equipment in such a way that the disconnection and separation is secure

Reduced voltage systems:- By reducing the voltage present system the consequences of electrical shock can be greatly reduced

Residual Current Devices (RCD):- It compares the current flowing into the system with the current flowing out. When the level differs by a preset value the RCD will open rapidly and interrupt the supply

Double Insulation:- Covering live parts by two separated layers of insulation

User checks

  • Equipment is of an approved standard
  • Wiring and casing are free from damage
  • Cables are correctly routed
  • System not overloaded
  • Correct fuses
  • Plug properly wired and gripped
  • Competent users
  • Using reduced voltage in wet conditions
  • Using RCDs

Office Environments

  • Suitable equipment manufactured to appropriate standards
  • Avoid the use of trailing cables
  • Avoid multi-socket extensions
  • Control private electrical equipment brought from home
  • Report defective and damaged equipment
  • Ensure effective heating
  • Switch off overnight
  • Test appliances at regular intervals

Element 7:- Construction Activities Hazards and Control

Site Precautions for children

  • Fencing
  • Security
  • Cameras
  • Warning signs
  • Visit schools
  • Take children to site on visits
  • Lock away vehicle keys
  • Lock away hazardous chemicals
  • Remove ladders
  • Cover holes
  • Reduce heights of materials

Hazards for repair of Flat Roof

  • Falling off
  • Falling through
  • Access
  • Hot bitumen
  • Burning gases
  • Fumes
  • Fire
  • Manual handling


Hazards in use

  • Falling off
  • Overreaching
  • Carrying up materials
  • Unsuitable ladder
  • Ladder not properly secured
  • Incorrect angle
  • Not reaching above landing place
  • Aluminium ladders near electrical lines


Draw and label key parts of an independent Tied Scaffold

Inspection checking the above are correct Plus

  • Staggered joints
  • Not overloaded
  • Suitable access

Show how scaffold is attached to the building

Mobile Tower Scaffold


  • Erected by competent persons
  • Pre use inspections
  • Positioned on firm ground
  • Correct height to width ratio 3.5 x narrowest side
  • Use of outriggers to broaden base
  • Tying in to adjacent structure
  • People and materials removed before moving
  • Handrails and toe boards
  • Suitable work platform
  • Not overloaded

Hazards opposite of above

Mobile Elevating Work Platforms


  • People falling or being thrown
  • Materials falling
  • Crushing between carrier and a fixed structure

Collapse or overturning of MEWP caused by

  • Equipment failure
  • Unsuitable ground conditions
  • Defective or unused outriggers
  • Overloading of the carrier
  • Struck by load
  • Struck by another vehicle
  • Interference with controls

Precautions opposite of above

Suspended access cradles and platforms 


  • Pre-use inspections
  • Supports to building of adequate strength
  • Suitably maintained
  • Safe access and egress
  • Not exceed safe working load
  • Guard rails and toe boards fitted
  • Safety harnesses worn
  • Limitations on use in strong winds


Main hazards

  • Undermining foundations
  • Collapse
  • Underground services
  • Persons falling in
  • Vehicles close to edge
  • Access and egress
  • Hazardous atmospheres
  • Flooding
  • Contamination
  • Type of soil
  • Removal of soil

Precautions for above

Precautions for underground services

  • Plan job
  • Locate cables
  • Avoid cables
  • Safe digging procedures

 Hazards of Demolition

  • Underground and over head services
  • Falls from height
  • Fall of materials
  • Premature collapse
  • Health hazards
  • Gases and vapours
  • Noise
  • Vibration
  • Ionising radiations
  • Biological hazards

Precautions opposite of above plus

  • Exclusion zones
  • Safe method of demolition
  • PPE

Element 8:- Fire Hazards and Control

Causes of fire

  • Arson
  • Electrical faults
  • Misuse of electrical equipment
  • Smokers’ materials
  • Oil/gas heating equipment and portable heaters
  • Unsafe storage of materials
  • Use of flammable liquids or gases in unsuitable areas
  • Welding/hot work
  • Mechanical heat (Sparks/friction)

The fire triangle:- Fuel, Source of ignition, Oxygen

Flash point:- The temperature at which a vapour given off by substance will ignite when brought to a source of ignition

Classes of fire

A      Combustible solids (Coal, paper etc.)

B      Flammable liquids (Alcohol, Petrol)

C      Flammable gases  (Butane, hydrogen, propane)

D      Metals

F       Cooking media     (Vegetable oil or animal fats)

Method of Heat Transfer

Direct Contact: – The flame and a combustible fuel are in direct contact and the fuel heats up and eventually ignites.

Conduction: – Heat travels within a solid material from hotter to cooler parts

Radiation: – Heat is radiated through the air causing heating of a materials at a distance from the fire.

Convection: – Hot air rises in currents causing the build up of hot and unburnt gases under ceilings etc. and allows fire to spread from one room to another.

Fire precautions to minimise the risk to people in the event of fire

Suitable Fire/smoke detection

Fire Alarms:-

  • Suitable
  • Regular Testing
  • Contact with emergency services

Means of escape

  • Travel Distances
  • Stairways
  • Fire doors
  • Signage
  • Emergency lighting
  • Assembly points

Means of fighting the fire

  • Suitable extinguishers
  • Properly sited extinguishers
  • Training in the use of extinguishers
  • Extinguishers properly maintained

Emergency evacuation procedures

  • Fire marshals
  • Fire notices
  • Fire drills
  • Roll calls
  • Provisions for disabled
About Raja Usman

My name is Usman, and I am a dedicated health and safety specialist with over 6 years of experience in the field. I am proud to be a part of the Balfour Beatty team in the UK, where I can utilize my expertise to ensure the safety and well-being of all employees. As a health and safety specialist, I identify and assess potential hazards, develop and implement effective safety policies and procedures, and provide ongoing training and support to ensure compliance.

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