Planning A Health And Safety Management System

Planning A Health And Safety Management System

The planning (PLAN) of a health and safety management system involves developing and implementing suitable management arrangements to control risks by introducing workplace preventative measures. Such measures must be proportionate and appropriate to the hazards and risks in the organization. Any management system must accommodate changes in the organization’s activities, personnel, or legislative requirements. 

Three key questions need to be answered during the planning process: 

  • Where is the organization in terms of the management of health and safety? 
  • Where does it want to be? 
  • How does it get there?

The answers to these questions at the site level will be different from those at the headquarters of a large multisite organization. Therefore, they should be asked at all levels to completely understand the effectiveness of health and safety management across the whole organization. For planning to be effective, it must be properly coordinated throughout the organization to avoid overlaps and omissions.

The health and safety planning process comprises three sections:

  • correct information about the existing situation; 
  • suitable benchmarks against which to make comparisons (see later in this chapter); 
  • competent people to carry out the analysis and make judgments.

The organization must compare the current situation against the health and safety management framework described earlier and specific legal requirements. The key requirements of this framework are as follows:

A clear health and safety policy

Evidence shows that a well-considered policy contributes to business efficiency and continual improvement. It helps to minimize financial losses arising from avoidable accidents and demonstrates to the workforce that accidents are not necessarily the fault of any individual member of the workforce. This management attitude could increase workforce cooperation, job satisfaction, and productivity. This demonstration of senior management involvement offers evidence to all stakeholders that the organization’s responsibilities to people and the environment are taken seriously. 

A good health and safety policy helps ensure a systematic approach to risk assessment. In terms of people and money, sufficient resources have been allocated to protect the workforce’s health, safety, and welfare. It can also support quality improvement programs that are aimed at continual improvement.

A well-defined health and safety organization

The shared understanding of the organization’s values and beliefs is an essential component of a positive health and safety culture at all levels of the organization. For a positive health and safety culture to be achieved, an organization must have clearly defined health and safety responsibilities. There is always management control of health and safety throughout the organization. The formal organizational structure should be such that the promotion of health and safety becomes a collaborative activity between the workforce, safety representatives, and the managers. An effective organization is essential for the DO stage of the management system. It will be noted for good staff involvement and participation, high-quality communications, the promotion of competency, and the empowerment of all employees to make informed contributions to the organization’s work.

A clear health and safety plan

This involves implementing performance standards and procedures using an effective occupational health and safety management system. The plan is based on risk assessment methods to decide priorities and set objectives for controlling or eliminating hazards and reducing risks. Measuring success requires establishing performance standards against which achievements can be identified.

The measurement of health and safety performance

This includes both active (sometimes called proactive) and reactive monitoring to see how effectively the occupational health and safety management system is working. It forms part of the CHECK stage of the management system. Active monitoring involves looking at the premises, plants, substances, people, procedures, and systems. Reactive monitoring discovers through investigation of accidents and incidents why controls have failed. It is also important to measure the organization against its own long-term goals and objectives.

Reviewing performance

The results of monitoring and independent audits should be systematically reviewed to evaluate the management system’s performance against the objectives and targets established by the health and safety policy. At the review or ACT stage of the management system, the goals and targets set in the health and safety policy may be changed. Changes in the health and safety environment in the organization, such as an accident, should also trigger a performance review – this is discussed in more detail later in this chapter. Performance reviews are not only required by the HSW Act but are part of any organization’s commitment to continuous improvement. Comparisons should be made between similar organizations’ internal and external performance indicators with exemplary practices and high standards.

Auditing

An independent and structured audit of all parts of the health and safety management system reinforces the review process. Such audits may be internal or external. The audit assesses compliance with the health and safety management arrangements and procedures. If the audit is to be effective, it must assess both the compliance with stated procedures and the performance in the workplace. It will identify weaknesses in the health and safety policy and procedures and identify unrealistic or inadequate standards and targets.

Other aspects of health and safety management systems

Any occupational health and safety management system will fail unless there is a positive health and safety culture within the organization and the active involvement of internal and external stakeholders. A structured and well-organized occupational health and safety management system is essential for maintaining high health and safety standards within all organizations and countries. Some systems, such as OHSAS 18001, offer the opportunity for integration with quality and environmental management systems. This enables a sharing of resources, although it is important that technical activities, such as health and safety risk assessment, are only undertaken by persons trained and competent in that area.

For an occupational health and safety management system to be successful, it must address workplace risks and be ‘owned’ by the workforce. It is, therefore, essential that the audit process examines shop floor health and safety behaviour to check that it mirrors that required by the health and safety management system. Finally, whichever system is adopted, there must be continual improvement in health and safety performance if the occupational health and safety management system succeed in the long term.

Key characteristics of a health and safety management system

The four basic elements common to all occupational health and safety management systems, as described earlier in this chapter, contain the different activities of the system together with the detailed arrangements and actions required to deliver those activities. However, there are four key characteristics of a successful occupational health and safety management system: 

  • Apositive health and safety culture; 
  • The involvement of all stakeholders; 
  • An effective audit; and 
  • Continual improvement. 

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