NEBOSH IGC1 Study Notes

Element 1

Outline the reasons for promoting and maintaining the good standard (safety) in the workplace?

There are three main reasons for promoting and maintaining good standard safety in the workplace.

  • Moral
  • Legal
  • Financial


Its moral obligation of the employer to provide the safe and healthy environment to their employee. So that they can easily work and enjoy to perform job while returning home. Injury and accident lead to pain and suffering not only the victims, also their family members and friends. Who goes out for the work is the economic necessity and not for consent injury and accident.


It is the legal obligation of the employer by the country’s law, that the employer should provide a safe environment that is totally safe for working like hasawa (health and safety at work act) 1974 etc. Non-compliance with the legal binding can result in penalties, fine and prohibition of production at work site.


A workplace without good safety working standards can lead to accidents which have direct and indirect cost. Financially impacts, accident cause a great deal of money especially when we add some damages, caused by some accident

Direct cost:

Direct cost included fine, compensation, payout, medical cost and sick pay.

Indirect cost:

Indirect cost included delay of production, personal allocated to investigate to the accident, damage to equipment, loss of reputation and loss of goodwill. So maintaining a good and safe working environment is cheaper in longer terms.

Element 2

Safety committee

Outlines the benefits to an organization of having health and safety committee?

  • An organization having health and safety committee shows the top management is fully committed to providing health and safety culture to the organization.
  • It also facilitates the communication and consultation between employer and employee.
  • It also provides a forum for meeting and discussion between employer and employee.
  • It also promotes health and safety culture at the workplace.
  • It also encourages employees to take apart and also feel a degree of ownership in the company.

Outline the reasons why a health and safety committee may prove to be ineffective in practice?

  • A health and safety committee may prove to be ineffective in practice if there is lack of commitment from management to provide resources.
  • It also proves to be ineffective if there is no specific agenda of meeting and minutes of the meeting are not recorded
  • It also proves to be ineffective if there is an imbalance of the committee constitution. E.g employer and employee nomination are not proper if leadership is poor and not serious in implementing health and safety practices.
  • The function of the committee also ineffective if the committee has no access to the decision making. The frequency of meeting also an important factor, if it is rare or infrequent can also result in effectiveness and finally if the topic of the meeting is not appropriate

Identify a range of methods that an employer can use to provide health and safety information directly to the individual employee?

Following are the method through which employer can provide health and safety information directly to individual employees.

Through massage on payslip:

  • Payslips are the most important piece of paper which is read by everyone. One method to provide information to the individual is to print health and safety-related messages on pay slip so that information is shared with everyone.

Safety posters:

  • Safety messages should be delivered by posting safety posters at prominent places as the visual way is easy to explain and understand.

Electronic media:

  • Nowadays when there is email access to everybody in the company, one method is to circulate safety alert is by email to all individuals.

Safety signs:

  • Safety signs should be used at hazardous locations to inform /educate all individual that this is hazardous zone and precautions are required.

One to one briefing:

  • One to one safety briefing is also a very important tool to provide information and training should be provided to all individuals by one to one briefing.

Appraisal sessions:

  • One way to educate the employees is the appraisal session in which safety and health should be given top priorities

Toolbox talk:

  • This is also an important tool that safety talk should be carried out prior to communicate of any job so that employees know the hazards.

Induction training:

  • One most important factor is the induction programs, that when an employee is inducted he/she should go through detail session of health and safety

Outline topics that may be included in safety committee meeting?

These may include a review of the recent incident. A review of proactive monitoring strategies, such as safety inspections and audits and on report following by the visiting enforcement agencies and effect of new legislation on the company.

Additionally, it may include items on possible amendments to the company’s heater and safety policies and risk assessment. The extent and effect of any health and safety training given to employees and introduction of new equipment, process, safety concerns of employees, raised by their representative as well as management to raise concern about pour safety practice.

Identify the factor that could be considered when assessing health and safety competence of contractors?

Following are factors.

  • Health and safety policy of the contractor
  • Previous work experience of the contractor
  • Past incident/accident statistics
  • If there any legal notice issued to contractors
  • Resources of the contractor to meet job
  • Accreditation of contractor with/from any certified body
  • Equipment maintenance/inspection record
  • Training record of employees.
  • Detail proposals to carry out jobs.

Outline the responsibilities of an employer?

According to ILO convention c-155 employer must ensure that, so far as is reasonably practicable, that workplace machinery and processes under their control are safe and without risk to health. They must ensure, so far as reasonably practicable that chemical and biological substances under their control are safe and without risk for others. This includes the provision of free of charge of where necessary adequate protective clothing and protective equipment to prevent, so far as reasonably practicable, the risk of accident and adverse effect on health.

The employer must provide, where necessary, control measures to deal with emergency and first aid arrangement.

The employer must provide necessary information, instruction, training and supervision as it is necessary to ensure health and safety culture.

Outlines duties of employers and self-employed person to the person other than their employee (non-employee)?

It shall be a duty of every employer and every self-employed person to conduct his undertaking in such a manner as to ensure, so far as reasonably practicable, that he and other persons not being his employees, who may be affected thereby are not exposed to risk their safety or health.

It shall be a duty of every employer and every self-employed person in prescribe circumstances and prescribed manner to give persons, not being his employee the prescribed information on such aspects of the manner in which he conducts his undertaking as might affect their safety or health.

Outline the responsibilities and rights of an employee?

ILO convention C155 sets the rights and responsibilities of the worker also

Employee’s duty/responsibility:

The employee must not enforce or misuse any facility to him, the employee must take reasonable care of his own safety and health and of other people who might be affected by his acts & omissions. He /she must cooperate with the employer, so far as necessary that employer can meet statutory requirements. The employee must report any situation to their supervisor that they believe present a specious imminent or danger to life and health. The employee must use all PPE’s at work, provided by the employer. The employee must comply all instructions of HSE.

Employee’s rights:

Employees shall be consulted by the employer on all aspects of safety and health associated with their work. An employee cannot be charged for any safety and health measures shall necessary for works e.g PPE and access equipment employee has the right to return to the workplace where is the serious danger to life and health.

The relationship between client and contractor:

Both client and contractor have duties under health and safety legislation. If contractor employs, a subcontractor to carry out the job. Both parties have responsibilities.


Client needs to take certain step prior to contractor start work

Identify the job that they want the contractor to do and health and safety implementations of job.

Client should be satisfied that they have chosen a suitable/ competent contractor. This include the contractor must have suitable procedure of maintenance of equipment and of checking of sub contractors.

Other step to be checked by all parties:

  • Risk assessment of the work , including how each other could effect the health ad safety of workforce and any one else e.g visitors.
  • Provide information, instruction of training including the information about the hazards arising from operation and their control, specially orp’s
  • Cooperation and coordination liaison arrangement must be made such as meetings and briefing between client and contractors and sub contractors.
  • Consulting the workforce
  • Management of supervision of work be

Outline difference between consulting and information?

The difference between consulting and informing lies in fact that upon informing a trade union or safety representative merely acknowledge certain information presented to them by employer. Consulting on other hand, means a situation where the employer is obliged to inform the trade union of any proposal and for safety representative to consult fellow worker for any review. Therefore consultation is two way process where information is one-way process.

Outline safety and health issues on which employer should consult workers?

The employer should consult worker on following cases.

Shift pattern changes:

  • If there is major change in ship pattern then it is the responsibility of employer to consult the employee before any such change.

Change in material:

  • If there is significant change in material being used by workers, it is responsibility of employer to consult workers and let them know about the hazards associated with new material and its use.

Change in plant/machinery:

  • If there is significant change in plant or machinery, then employer must consult worker and educate them about its use and hazards and risk involve in it.

Change in process:

  • Employer should consult worker before any significant change in process so that workers are aware about its potential hazards.

Organizational structure:

  • Employer should consult worker before any significant change in organizational structure.

Emergency response procedure:

  • Employer must consult workers before any change in emergency response procedures so that workers can be trained according to new procedure.

Incentive schemes:

  • Employer should consult workers before launching any schemes regarding health and safety. So that moral of work force get boosted.


  • Employer should consult workers if there is new policy imposed in workplace, just like smoking policy.

There has been a determination of health and safety culture of organization.

Define term health and safety culture?

The health and safety culture of an organization is the product of individual and group values, attitude, perceptions, competence and pattern of behavior that determined the commitment to, and proficiency of an organization’s health and safety management.

Identify the factors that have contributed to the determining factors that have contributed to the determination?

Factors contributing in deterioration:

Following are factors that can be contribute in the deterioration.

Lack of management commitment:

  • If top management is not properly committed to provide or maintain health and safety culture can deteriorate.

Lack of communication:

  • If there is a gap between the top management and the workers so that worker cannot convey his problems to the top management. This lack of communication can deteriorate.

Organization reorganization:

  • Frequent changes in the management can result in a scenario where health and safety culture deteriorate.

Increased accidents:

  • Increase number of accidents demonstrates that the accidents are not being investigated properly, and if properly investigated, reoccurrence can be stopped, so this can deteriorate h&s culture.

Staff turnover:

  • High rate of turnover of the staff require again the training of new staff regarding health and safety and frequent turnover results in deterioration.

Lack of enforcement and monitoring.

  • It is necessary to have proper audit/monitoring of health and safety regulations and they should be enforced, penalties should be awarded on non compliance. In case of lack of enforcement and monitoring the health and safety culture deteriorates.

Reduction of staffing level:

  • If the no of staff is reduced and one person is doing work of 3 persons, it can cause accident, hence deterioration of culture.

Decline in economy:

  • Decline in economy causes the in security of the jobs of employee and result in low morale, hence deteriorate the health and safety culture.

Define attitude:

Attitude is the response to the situation it is the stance one take.

Define aptitude:

It is tendency to good at certain things.

Define motivation:

It is the driving force behinds a person action.

Type of motivation

Motivation of peoples.

  • It is concerned with action taken by superior to influence their subordinates to more effective performance. This is more commonly known as leadership.

Motivation within people:

  • This assumes that there is driving force within peoples which drive them to achieve their goals.

Errors and violations.

Human failure are either caused by errors and violations.

Error has three types.


  • Failure in carrying out action of task in other words actions are not planned. These might include action carrying too soon, or too late, omitting step of series. Carrying out an action with too little or too much strength.


  • Forgetting to carry out an action, to loose our place in a task or to forget what we intended to do.
  • Where we do the wrong thing and believing it to be right. The failure involve our mental process which control now we plan. Rule base mistake trappen when our behavior is based upon remaining rule. Knowledge band mistake to incomplete information.


Communication is defined as what we do to inform other of our ideas, feeling and knowledge and in turn receive their feedback. Effective communication is essential feature of health and safety culture.

There are three methods of communication.

  • Verbal
  • Written
  • Graphic

There are two types of communications

  • One way
  • Two way.

Barriers in communication:

There are different factors that can be barrier in effective communication.


  • During verbal communication, it is possible that during high noise the person at other end cannot understand you or listen proper to you.


  • Complexity is the another factor, that if the topic is too complex, very technical and the person on other end is not able to understand. So it should be taken into account that the topic chosen is very simple.


  • It happens in many organizations that different nationality peoples are working with different native languages so the verbal communication can be a problem for them. A graphical representation or interpretation is necessary in that case.

Sensory impairment.

  • One most important factor is that if somebody is deaf, colorblind or have some sensory impairment, he should be deal in particular way.


  • If the topic or delivering style is not clear to others can create communication difficult.


  • If the abbreviation or technics terminology is used in communication, it can be problem.

Mental impairment:

  • If somebody has problem with understanding has not such level.

Very long communication change.

Principle of communication:

  • Direct yourself towards and reach intended receipent.
  • Communicate in the way that is easy to understand.
  • Use open ended question (e.g how will you do etc.)
  • Use close ended questions to confirm ( e.g answer is yes or no).
  • Use clear terms.
  • Be assistive
  • Be concise
  • Ensuring understanding.
  • Check to ensure understanding.
  • Ask for feedback.

Use and effectiveness of various form of communication.

Notice boards:      

Use for displaying health and safety information and news. Including photograph of safety representative and staff with health and safety responsibilities is highly effective in raising- profile of worker involvement. For its effectiveness it needs to be regularly updated with information about safety meeting, accident statics etc. It should be prominently displayed and use of color makes it more appealing.

Team meetings.    

Making health and safety a standard agenda in team meeting is proven way of raising. Its standard in organization. Managers should encourage feedback from staff and ensure that concern and suggestion are responded to and registered.


Use newsletters to inform staff about health and safety and ways to get involved. Try mixing media email updated and hard copy newsletter, increase chance staff receiving massages.


Giving health and safety a high profile on your staff intranet and keeping it up to date is convenient way for staff to access information. Intranet can included information regarding safety meeting minutes, presentation, regulation etc.

Tool box talks:

Short talk focused around specific health and safety issue such as lifting, slip, trip or injuries from workplace vehicles. Tool box talks help to increase health and safety culture.


Memos are often used to communicate brief points. The memo be faster and easier then more formal document, change procedure. Safety related issue might include job change working hours or patterns.

Safety propaganda: Films, Videos, Dvds And Posters.

Videos and films are easy way used visual illustrating. Such videos can appeal the both visual and audio learners. Posters can be slogan and for improving health and safety.

Employee handbook:.

An hand book is excellent tool to inform employee about company polices, procedures.

An independent audit of organization concluded that employees have received in sufficient training.

Describe the factors that should e considered when developing extensive programme of health and safety training with organization.

When developing a training program, first of all training needs of the employees should be dentified that what they already know and what trainings should be given that minimize that risk. It is also important that a senior manager require different type of training where, a supervisor or worker at shop floor required different training according to his nature of work.

From the training need analysis should emerge information of the number of workers involved , the types of training need and the resources in term of financial lost, time and facilities, required tocarry out program. The factors should include at this stage competence of trainer require to provide training, the possible need to involve external sources and mean of communication of programe at all levels.

  • Health and safety trainings:.
  • Effects of training on human reliabilities
  • Legal requirement under section 2 of hasawa.
  • Employer must take into account capability if employee.
  • Ensure that adequate health and safety trainings are provided to each employee.
  • Consideration must be given to the training of newly inducted employees at time of induction.
  • Training should also be provided to employees when there is change in process, equipment etc.
  • Training session should be held periodically to ensure proper awareness.
  • Finally record of all trainings should be kept for future training need.

Outline various measures to asses effectiveness of training.?

Post training evaluation by trainer, trainees and their supervisor. Sickness and absences rate and incident/accident rates, level of compliance with lay down procedure such as use of ppe’s. The result of attitude surveys, and number of quality suggestion made, and concern raise by employees to health and safety.

Give four reasons that employee should keep record of Employe.

  • Provide proof of competive level of employee.
  • Identification of further training.
  • To asses training programme against targets.
  • Provide evidence in future in case of accident/incident investigation/and legal requirements.

Benefit to employee:

Morale of employee raised and work efficieny increases, reduction of personal injury, better welfare awareness, develop experience faster.

Induction training.

Review and discussion  of policy, specific requirement, fire and emergency procedure, welfare facility, ppe’s, health legislation, individual responsebelity and authority.

Internal and external influences on health and safety management standards.

Internal influences:

  • Management commitment
  • Production demands ( realistic-unrealistic)
  • Communication
  • Competence

External influences:

  • Social expectations.
  • Legislation
  • Enforcement
  • Insurance company
  • Trade unions
  • Stake holder such as clients

Risk assessment: (definition)

Identification of what within your work or workplace, which may have potential to cause harm to people or worker, so that you can consider whether you have provide to do more to prevent harm.

Risk assessment


It is defined as something that has the potential to cause harm including ill health and injury, damage to plant, products or environment e.g slippery floor, electricity etc.


Is the probably ( likelihood) of that harm actually occurring and severity of the consequences.

Objective of risk assessment

  • Minimize the likelihood and severity of harm posses by hazard.
  • Minimize the economic consequences.
  • Comply with national/legal requirements.

Risk assessment is defined as the identification of hazards present in an undertaking, and an estimate of the risk involved, taking into account what precautions are taken and need of any additional precautions.

Why we prevent accident

There are three reasons, why we prevent accident:

Human harm:

Any health and safety accident which leads to human harm will involve a degree of pain and suffering for the individual, possibly their family and friends.


Failure to comply health and safety law within country, which then cause an incident can then lead to a criminal and / or civil legal action. If found guilty then this could involve considerable fines and/ or compensation awards.


Accident cost money both direct and indirect.

With respect to undertaking a general risk assessment on activities within a workplace.

Outline key stages of risk assessment process; identify issues that need to be considered at each stage.

First stage of performing the risk assessment is to identify all the significant hazards, that are involved in job hazards may be of different natures i.e physical, chemical, biological or egronomical etc. After identifying the hazards the second key stage to identify that who will be effected and now will he/ she be effected. Consideration may be given specially when there are young workers performing the job or special workers like the expectant mothers as for example, if expectant mother is working on production line and different movement can endanger two gives.

After determining that who and how he/she suffer the third key stage is to evaluate the risk in term of probability and severity and examine the existing controls and if there is requirement to some other control after this the further key stage to serve the findings on paper and final stage is to review date must be mentioned as different circumstances need review of risk assessment

Explain criteria which must be met for risk assessment to be suitable and sufficient.

For a risk assessment to be suitable and sufficient must include all the significant hazards involved with the job. It must include that who will be effected. A suitable risk assessment must include evaluation of the risk in terms of likelihood and severity and what are the existing controls and if there is requirement of new control measure for a suitable and sufficient risk assessment.

It should be carried out by a competent person and it must remain valid for a certain period of time.

Outline factors that employer should take into account when selecting individual to assest in carrying out risk assessment.?

Employer should take into account the previous experience of the employee assisiting in risk assessment that in past he/she has any experience of assisting. He/she has knowledge of the process or equipment so that he can easily assist. Employer must consider the age of persons because a mature person can assist better than a young person.

He/she must have the knowledge of regulation and legislation. He/she should have report writing skills and have good knowledge of standard and finally the attitude of the person.

Outline typical circumstances when we might review risk assessment.?

  • Typical circumstances that might require review of the risk assessment are:
  • Change of premises. External or internal layout.
  • Change of personnel effected. Nos. Age, disabilities.
  • Change of plant, equipment etc.
  • Introduction of new work process such as hot work, confined space etc.
  • Changes in legislation.
  • Upon availability of new information, new research.
  • As a result of oh & s monitoring.
  • As a result enforcement action.
  • As a result of consultation.

Explain the term “hierarchy of control”

It is defined as list of measures to control hazards/risk associated with work, starts with strong control and at the end ppe’s as last resort.

General hierachy of control?

  • Eliminate the hazard, substance or work place.
  • Reduce (the use of frequency) or substitute (e.g powder with pellet)
  • Isolate ( e.g a glove box for handling biological substances)
  • Control engineering control and safe system of work (e.g ptw)
  • Personal protective equipment like hard hat, gloves tec.
  • Enforcement of the rules, procedures and iits (information instruction and traing supervision.

Risk assessment of young person.

A young person is statistically at a considerably higher risk of from both a health and safety stan point in workplace. There are 4 main reasons.

  • Both physical and mental
  • Lack of experience
  • Lack of awareness
  • High susceptibility to peer pressure.

Expectant mothers:

  • Expectant mothers are at significant risk from whole ranges of occupational hazards.
  • Biological e.g hepatitis
  • Chemical e.g lead, co, mutagens.
  • Physical e.g extreme temperature, excess manual handling, prolonged standing.
  • Physcological . Stress. Disabled person.

Component of system

  • P – People
  • E – Equipment
  • M – Material
  • E – Environment

Employer’s duty to provide a safe system of work (lone workers)

“lone worker are those who work by themselves without close or direct supervision.


Infectious patient, people with a history of violence to staff, mugging. Hazards specific to an individual which may create particular risk for lone worker e.g medical condition, disabilities, female employees, expectant mother, age, experience, and immaturity etc.


Hazards specific to work equipment which may create particular risk for the done worker, e.g manual handling, and operations of emergency control and work on the electrical system.


Hazards such as heavy item including display stands and carcinogen gases.


Hazards specific to work place/environment which may create particular risk for lone workers e.g remote areas, laboratories, workshop, and confined space.

Control measure

  • Specific information, instruction, and training ( e.g emergency procedure, personal safety training) improved communication system such as a frequent contact on the mobile phone.
  • Supervision by adhoc unit to inspect their working practices.
  • Increased serenity with control access, secure car parking, personal alarms.
  • Increased lighting at the entrance, exit, and car park.

Confined space

A confined space means an enclosed or partially enclosed space that is not designed or intended for hum occupancy except for purpose of performing work.

  • Has restricted means of access and egress.
  • May become hazardous when employee enter to
  • Its design, construction, location.
  • Its material or substances

Any other condition relating to it.


05 Risk of confined space.

  • Oxygen deficiency and environment
  • Fire and explosion
  • Toxicity
  • Drowning in liquid or entrapping in free-flowing solids.
  • Extreme of temperature.

Outline factors to be considered when making an assessment of first aid provision in the workplace?


The spread of water throughout the workplace is an important consideration. Are they spread over a large area e.g construction site or they highly located e.g an office block? So it is important to consider.


The number of the worker employed is another factor.

Nature of work:

Is the work is of high risk, low or medium obviously high risk, higher the level of first aid provision?


Location is very important if premises were next door to the hospital, then need for the first aider is less if it is so minor.

Shift work.

When there is more than one ship, then there is a requirement for more than a first aider. And arrange should be made of leaves an off day.

Identify eight sources of information that might usually be consulted when developing a safe system of work.

  • Statutory requirement.
  • Manufacture’s information.
  • Practical HSE standards.
  • Industry or trade
  • The result of risk assessment.
  • Incident/accident statistics, the worker involved, and where possible enforcement agencies

Four “c”

  • Communication
  • Coordination
  • Competent
  • Commitment

Following a significant increase in an accident, a health and safety campaign is launched in the organization to encourage safer working by the employee.

Outline how the organization might ensure that campaign is effectively communicated to and understood by employees.?

  • The organization must set clear objective and targets for the campaign and clear to achieve them. It is also important that key responsibilities for the campaign are allocated and accepted with due commitment to avoid mixing of massages.
  • Variety of means for the campaign can be used such as the poster, toolbox talk, safety committee should be very simple avoid any jargons and use simple language so that everybody can be understood.
  • Suggestion boxes and surveys should be used to take feedback from employees that the campaign is progressing properly. Other than poor communication that can limit the effectiveness of the campaign.
  • Lack of management commitment is one factor that can limit the campaign effectiveness, that if the management not serious.
  • Production or other issues, (such as to meet production target) taking priority over the health and safety issue.
  • Insufficient resources allocated to the campaign can limit its effectiveness.
  • The poor working condition can close the campaign to limit.
  • Poor industrial relations or lack of confidence of management.
  • Shift pattern, maybe some shifts not conveyed properly because of the non-availabilities.

Active and reactive monitoring

There is two monitoring system.

  • Active or proactive monitoring.
  • Reactive monitoring.

Active or proactive monitoring:

Any monitoring technique to monitor thing before taking place of event e.g safe audit.

Objectives of active monitoring

  • Check that health and safety plans being implemented.
  • Monitor the extent of compliance with company laid down procedure and legal requirements.

Organization need to know

  • Where they are?
  • Where they want to be?
  • What is the difference and why?

Method of active monitoring (imp)

  • Routine procedures to monitor specific objective, i.e monthly or quarterly reports.
  • Periodic examinations of the documents to check that system relating to the promotion of health and safety culture have complied with the e.g appraisal, assessment of training needs.
  • Inspection of plant premises, equipment to check either safety procedures are neat.
  • Environmental monitoring and health surveillance to check the effectiveness of health control measure.
  • Risk assessments.
  • Use of safety inspection, sampling, and tours.

Safety inspection:

Inspections involve examination of workplace or equipment in order to identify the hazards and determine if they are effectively controlled.

Four types of inspections:

  • General workplace inspections carried out by local first line managers and worker representative.
  • Statuary inspection of equipment e.g boiler, pressurized tanks and it is carried out by a committed person.
  • Preventive maintenance inspections of critical equipment carried out by maintenance staff.
  • Pro use a check of equipment e.g vehicle, forklifts carried out by workers.

Safety sampling:

Sampling is where only a partial amount of group/area is examined to the established fact that can indicate the compliance of the whole.

Safety tours:

Tour provides an opportunity for management to explore the effectiveness of risk control measure through the planned visit to the work place and to observe and discuss the control of its use.

Reactive monitoring:

A tool of monitoring used after an event, i.e accident

Primary objective is to analyze data of

  • Accident / near miss
  • Ill health
  • Other downgrading events.


  • Analysis of statistics of accidents, near misses, ill health, and injury.
  • Assessment of cost this accident done i.e damage to property.
  • Any legal or enforcement action was taken against the organization.
  • Civil claims against the organization.

Outline sources of information by which health and safety performance can be reviewed?

Accident/incident statistics:

Accident data analysis is critical but it should be remembered, that it is after the event. Two elements to consider are

  • Quality of planning before the event
  • Failure of control, this will often result in a review of risk assessment.


The primary purpose of workplace inspections is to identify the hazards and potential of their outcome.

Absences & sickness:

Some workplace hazards or working environment may result in sickness absence or ill health. Sickness or general data of absence should be collected and analyzed to determine if it has resulted from work or working environment issues. Such analysis may determine causes such as shift work, over work or the poor environment, including in adequate ventilation or extreme temperature and humidity.

Survey, tours & sampling:

A survey identifies needs, for example, a noise survey may identify if there is a need for any assessment.

Tours are to be carried out by the most senior person of an organization so that to carried out analysis.

Quality assurance report and audit.

Reports ( annual reports on health and safety)


An audit is the systematic and critical examination of an organization’s system to determine the extent of compliance with the set of agreed standards.

Pre-audit preparations:

The audit must be structured and coordinated in its assessment of the system. This is best achieved by auditing check list developed or obtained before audit. The audit involves assessment of documents, interviewing of people and observation in the workplace. In order to prepare for audit, it is necessary to decide who needs to be interviewed and organize a timetable.

In order to meet them in organized method. Interviews should be structured to provide interviews with the opportunity to express what they are doing to requirements being audited.

The outcome of an audit should ba e detailed report. A structure and approach should be agreed tat pre-audit stage.

Advantages of internal audit (imp)

  • Ensure local acceptance to implement recommidations.
  • Auditor often has intimate knowledge of hazards the t workplace.
  • An awareness for what might be appropriate fothe r industry.
  • Familiarity with work place including their weakness and strength.
  • Relatively low cost and easier to arrange

Disadvantages of the internal auditor (imp)

  • May not possess auditing skills
  • May not be up to date current legislation.
  • Work lead or other responsibution
  • Pressure from management

Advantages of external audit (imp)

  • there are impartial.
  • the range of different experience of the auditor.
  • may be offer solutions that may be considered ___ in the organization.
  • Not inhibited by criticism.
  • Will see organization’s performance without prior bias. ( fresh pair of eyes).

Advantages of external audit (imp)

  • Need to plan well to identify nature and scope of the organization.
  • Individual may not be forth coming, be nervous and ___ to a desc___ issue with outer___.
  • May seek unrealistic targets as he doesn’t know constraint of the organization.

Role of investigation

  • Establish what happened.
  • Identify measures to prevent reoccurrence
  • Establish legal or workers compensation.
  • Data gathering
  • Identification of trend.
  • Determine cause including underlying causes.

Approach to the investigation.

Gathering the information that what happened and to whom it happened and the information gathered will include interviews, photographs, sketches of the workplace and environmental condition.

Analyze the information that why it happened, analyzing the information of immediate and route causes. At this stage, it should be determined that either individual’s job or management factor cause the accident.

Identify suitable control measures that either risk assessment acquired to reviewed engineering and administrative control.

Action plan for implementation that which risk control measure should be immediately applied either the technical or the administrative specific measurable agreed timescale.

There are two types of investigation.

Supervisory investigation.

As the person in immediate operating control of an area or activity, it is logical to expect the supervisor together with the information on all incidents that happen in the sphere of responsibility. This investigation is necessary for all majority of incidents. It should result in swift remedial action and underline supervisor responsibility for day to day basis;

Formal investigation

In some time formal investigation take place, the committee include;

  • A senior manager to sit as chairperson.
  • A manager lower than senior manager i.e. Supervisors.
  • A competent person.
  • A safety engineer or workplace ————–

Summary of action taken (immediate action).

  • Isolating services and make area safe.
  • Administering first aid service and summon emergency service.
  • Inform next of kin.
  • Notify the enforcement agency by quickest practicable means.
  • Collect initial evidence such as photographs and sketches.
  • The setting of incident investigation.

Typical route causes.

  • Lack of understanding.
  • Lack of training.
  • Time constraints.
  • Poorly supervised.
  • Wrong equipment provided.
  • Inadequate equipment.


Good interview technique will include;

  • Record the name, date of interview.
  • Conduct interview in private.
  • Interview only one person at a time.
  • Protecting reputation of the person involved.
  • Set a casual informal tone.
  • Expressing appreciation for witnesses.

Immediate cause

  • Unsafe acts (using tools not designed for the job).
  • Unsafe conditions (trailing telephone cable in office).

Outline information that should be included in investigation report?

  • Personal detail of the injured party.
  • Date, time and location of the accident.
  • Environmental conditions.
  • Control measures in place.
  • Precise circumstances of the incident.
  • Type and extent of the injury.
  • Detail of witnesses and copy of their statement.
  • Drawing, sketch, and photographs.
  • Immediate and route causes.

Identify four immediate and four underlying causes.

Immediate Causes.

  • Human error or failure to comply with procedure.
  • Mechanical failure.
  • Poor visibility in loading bay like lightening.
  • Restricted view for the driver
  • Environmental conditions such as high noise level.

Route causes

  • Lack of driver or employee struck training.
  • Lack of supervision.
  • The absence of rules in site for reversing vehicles.
  • Failure to separate vehicle and pedestrian traffic.
  • Lack of maintenance of the vehicle

Outline reasons why accident should be reported and recorded in workplaces?

Accidents are required to be properly reported and recorded as it is statutory (legal) requirements. They should also be reported because it indicates the gap in risk assessments and their review is required. It also shows the statistical analysis and indicates the level of training required for staff and improvement in the procedure.

Outline factor that might discourage the workers from reporting accidents?

  • Ignorance of reporting procedures.
  • The possibility of retribution (in blame culture).
  • Poor pressure.
  • Previous lack of management responses.
  • An aversion to forming filling.
  • A reluctance to lose time from a job in hand.
  • A desire to preserve company’s, department and individual’s record particularly when bonus payments are affected by it.

Outline the immediate and longer-term actions that should be taken following a serious injury at work?

Immediate action:

  • Preserve the scenes.
  • Provide first aid to the injured.
  • Inform his next of kin.
  • Determine immediately and route causes.

Long-term actions

  • Inform law enforcement agencies.
  • Set up an investigation.
  • Record witnesses.
  • On findings revise the procedure
About Hamza Ali

I'm Hamza, a Safety Officer with 5+ years of experience, worked at Saudi Aramco, gaining skills in safety inspections, protocols, and employee training. Skilled in emergency response planning and participated in successful drills. I am committed to ensuring a safe and secure work environment for all employees. My goal is to continue to improve safety standards and protocols to minimize the risk of accidents and injuries in the workplace.

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