Influence Of Personal Factors On Health And Safety
Personal factors, which affect health and safety, may be defined as any condition or characteristic of an individual that could cause or influence him/her to act unsafely. They may be physical, mental, or psychological. Personal factors, therefore, include issues such as attitude, motivation, training, and human error and their interaction with the individual’s physical, mental and perceptual capability.
These factors have a significant effect on health and safety. Some of them, normally involving the individual’s personality, is unchangeable, but others involving skills, attitude, perception, and motivation can be changed, modified, or improved by suitable training or other measures. In summary, the person needs to be matched to the job.
Studies have shown that the most common personal factors contributing to accidents are low skill and competence levels, tiredness, boredom, low morale, and individual medical problems.
It isn’t easy to separate all the physical, mental, or psychological factors because they are interlinked. However, the three most common factors are psychological factors – attitude, motivation, and perception.
Attitude is the tendency to behave in a particular way in a certain situation. Attitudes are influenced by the prevailing health and safety culture within the organization, the commitment of the management, the individual’s experience, and the influence of the peer group. Peer group pressure is a particularly important factor among young people. Health and safety training must be designed with this in mind by using examples or case studies relevant to them. Behavior may be changed by training, the formulation and enforcement of safety rules, and meaningful consultation – attitude change often follows.
Your attitude at work can greatly impact your health and safety. A positive attitude can help you stay alert and focused, while a negative attitude can lead to carelessness and accidents.
Here are some ways that your attitude can influence your health and safety at work:
- A positive attitude can help you stay calm and collected in stressful situations, which can help you make better decisions and avoid accidents.
- A negative attitude can lead to carelessness and recklessness, which can risk you and your co-workers.
- A positive attitude can help you stay motivated to follow safety procedures and take precautions to avoid accidents.
- A negative attitude can make you feel like safety procedures are a hassle and not worth following, increasing your chances of injury.
To stay safe at work, you must have a positive attitude. Attitude is everything when it comes to health and safety in the workplace.
Motivation is the driving force behind how a person acts or how people are stimulated to act. Involvement in the decision-making process in a meaningful way will improve motivation, as will incentive schemes. However, other important influences on motivation include recognition and promotion opportunities, job security, and job satisfaction. In all its forms, self-interest is a significant motivator and personal factor.
It is well-known that motivation plays a key role in influencing health and safety at work. For example, highly motivated employees to perform their job duties safely are less likely to be involved in workplace accidents. Additionally, motivated employees are more likely to take steps to protect their own health and safety, as well as the health and safety of their coworkers. Furthermore, motivated employees are more likely to report unsafe working conditions, which can help prevent accidents and injuries from occurring in the first place. Finally, motivated employees are more likely to participate in safety training and education programs, which can reduce the risk of workplace accidents and injuries. In sum, it is clear that motivation is a critical factor in promoting health and safety at work.
Perception is how people interpret the environment or how a person believes or understands a situation ( Figure 4.6 ). In health and safety, the perception of hazards is an important concern. Many accidents occur because people do not perceive that there is a risk. There are many common examples, including using personal protective equipment (PPE, such as hard hats), guards on drilling machines, and washing hands before meals. It is important to understand that when perception leads to an increased health and safety risk, it is not always caused by a conscious decision of the individual concerned. The stroboscopic effect caused by the rotation of a drill at certain speeds under fluorescent lighting will make the drill appear stationary. It is a well-known phenomenon, especially among illusionists, that people often see what they expect rather than reality. Routine or repetitive tasks will reduce attention levels, leading to the possibility of accidents.
When it comes to health and safety in the workplace, employees’ perceptions can have a significant impact on their behavior and overall attitude towards safety. In fact, research has shown that employees who perceive their work environment to be safe are more likely to follow safety procedures and report unsafe conditions. On the other hand, employees who perceive their work environment to be unsafe are more likely to take shortcuts and engage in risky behavior.
Several factors can influence an employee’s perception of safety in the workplace. For example, employees who feel that their job is in danger of being discontinued may be more likely to take risks to keep their job. Additionally, employees who feel their co-workers are not following safety procedures may be more likely to take risks.
Fortunately, there are several things that employers can do to influence their employees’ perceptions of safety in the workplace. For example, employers can provide employees with clear and concise safety rules and regulations. Additionally, employers can create a safety culture by rewarding employees who follow safety procedures and report unsafe conditions. Finally, employers can train employees to safely perform their job duties.
By taking these steps, employers can help ensure that their employees have a positive perception of safety in the workplace. As a result, employees will be more likely to follow safety procedures and report unsafe conditions, which can ultimately help improve the overall safety of the workplace.
Experience is a critical factor in the health and safety of workers. It can help prevent injuries, identify hazards and mitigate risks. Experience comes with knowledge, which can be invaluable in keeping people safe on the job.
There are several ways that experience influences health and safety at work.
- First, experienced workers are more likely to be aware of potential hazards and know how to avoid them. They can also better identify when a task is potentially dangerous and take steps to mitigate the risk.
- Second, experienced workers are more likely to have developed safe work practices and procedures. These can be critical in preventing accidents and injuries.
- Third, experienced workers are generally more comfortable with work equipment and machinery. This can help reduce the likelihood of errors and accidents.
- Fourth, experienced workers tend to be more confident in their abilities. This confidence can lead to safer work practices as they are less likely to take unnecessary risks.
- Finally, experienced workers can be valuable for new and inexperienced workers. They can provide guidance and support in learning how to safely perform tasks and identify hazards.
The experience of workers is a critical factor in the health and safety of the workplace. Experienced workers can help prevent accidents and injuries by being aware of potential hazards, having safe work practices and procedures, and being comfortable with work equipment and machinery. They can also be a valuable resource for new and inexperienced workers.
Other personal factors affecting health and safety include physical stature, age, health, hearing, intelligence, language, skills, level of competence, and qualifications.
Memory is an important personal factor influenced by training and experience. Memory efficiency varies considerably between people and during an individual’s lifetime. Overall, health can affect memory, as can personal crises. Due to these possible memory problems, important safety instructions should be available in written and verbal form.
Finally, it must be recognized that some employees do not follow safety procedures due to peer pressure or disregarding those procedures.
The following checklist given in HSG48 may be used to check that the relevant personal factors have been covered:
- Has the job specification been drawn up and included age, physique, skill, qualifications, experience, aptitude, knowledge, intelligence, and personality?
- Have the skills and aptitudes been matched to the job requirements?
- Have the personnel selection policies and procedures been set up to select appropriate individuals?
- Has an effective training system been implemented?
- Have the needs of special groups of employees been considered?
- Have the monitoring procedures been developed for the personal safety performance of safety-critical staff?
- Has fitness for work and health surveillance been provided where it is needed?
- Have counseling and support for ill health and stress been provided?
Personal factors are employees’ attributes to their jobs and maybe strengths or weaknesses. Negative personal factors cannot always be neutralized by improved job design. Therefore, it is important to ensure that personnel selection procedures match people to the job. This will reduce the possibility of accidents or other incidents.