Fire Risk Assessment Process | Step By Step Guidance

Understanding how to assess and manage fire risk is integral to maintaining a safe environment, whether a commercial building, an industrial complex, or a residential property. This critical process is not only a legal requirement in many regions, but it also plays a vital role in preventing potentially devastating fires, ensuring the safety of people, and protecting valuable assets.

Our latest blog post breaks down the complex fire risk assessment process into manageable steps. Whether you are a business owner, a safety officer, a property manager, or just someone interested in fire safety, this blog post will provide practical, step-by-step guidance.

From identifying potential hazards to implementing effective control measures, we’ll walk you through each stage of the assessment process. By the end of the post, you’ll have a clearer understanding of what a fire risk assessment entails, how to undertake one, and how to use the findings to create a safer environment.

With a focus on clarity and practical advice, this blog post demystifies the process of conducting a fire risk assessment, giving you the knowledge and confidence to carry out this essential safety procedure. Join us as we explore this vital topic and equip you with the tools to protect your premises and those within it from the fire threat.

What is a Fire Safety Risk Assessment?   

A Fire Risk Assessment is a systematic and detailed examination of premises and its use to determine the likelihood of a fire starting and causing harm to those in and around it. This assessment is legally required in many jurisdictions for non-domestic premises to ensure the safety of occupants.

The Fire Risk Assessment process involves identifying the potential sources of ignition that could start a fire (such as electrical equipment or flammable substances), the materials that might fuel a fire (such as paper, wood, or flammable liquids), and the people who may be at risk. Once these elements have been identified, the risk is evaluated, considering existing fire safety measures and their effectiveness. This risk is evaluated in terms of the likelihood of a fire occurring and the potential severity of the consequences if a fire were to happen.

Following the evaluation, a plan is developed to eliminate or reduce the fire risk to an acceptable level. This plan could involve implementing additional fire safety measures, improving existing measures, or changing how certain work activities are carried out. Regular review and updates to the fire risk assessment are also part of the process to ensure that any changes in circumstances are considered. A Fire Risk Assessment aims to reduce the risk of a fire starting, limit the spread of fire if it does occur, and ensure that all occupants can safely escape from the premises.

Fire Risk Assessment Process

Importance And Benefits Of Fire Risk Assessment

Fire risk assessments are essential for several reasons, including legal responsibilities, personal safety, and potential cost savings. Here are some of the key benefits and importance of conducting a fire risk assessment:

  • Legal Compliance: In many jurisdictions, it’s a legal requirement for businesses to conduct regular fire risk assessments. Failure to do so can result in hefty fines, penalties, and, in severe cases, imprisonment.
  • Safety: The primary purpose of a fire risk assessment is to identify any potential fire hazards and ensure that appropriate measures are in place to mitigate these risks. This helps ensure the safety of everyone on the premises, including employees, visitors, customers, and residents.
  • Prevention: Fire risk assessments help prevent fires by identifying potential risks and hazards early. This allows businesses to take corrective action before a fire occurs, such as removing flammable materials or fixing faulty equipment.
  • Emergency Preparedness: Fire risk assessments also involve evaluating the effectiveness of current fire safety measures, such as fire alarms, fire extinguishers, and escape routes. This helps ensure that people can evacuate safely and quickly during a fire.
  • Financial Savings: Fires can be devastating financially, causing extensive damage to property and goods, potentially shutting down operations, and leading to higher insurance premiums. Regular fire risk assessments can help prevent such losses. They may also result in lower insurance premiums, as many insurers offer discounts to businesses that demonstrate a proactive approach to fire safety.
  • Reputation Management: Demonstrating a commitment to safety can enhance a business’s reputation with employees, customers, and the wider community. In contrast, a fire, particularly one that could have been prevented through proper risk assessment, can severely damage a business’s reputation.
  • Business Continuity: Businesses can ensure continuity by identifying potential fire risks and implementing prevention and mitigation strategies. Fire can cause significant downtime, but the risks are minimized by being proactive and having a robust fire safety procedure, ensuring business operations can continue with minimal disruption.

A fire risk assessment is critical to managing a safe and efficient business environment. It ensures compliance with the law and significantly contributes to the business’s overall safety, financial stability, and reputation.

Fire Safety Risk Assessment

Fire Risk Assessment Process – How To Do It?

In a fire risk assessment, the analysis focuses on aspects of your work activities that could lead to fire-related harm. This assessment assists in identifying the chances of a fire starting and the potential dangers it presents to employees. The aim is to evaluate if the existing fire safety precautions are adequate for the identified risk or if further risk reduction measures are necessary.

"Fire Risk" refers to the potential likelihood of a fire happening multiplied by the severity of the potential fire outcomes - this includes loss of life and property damage.

A fire hazard has the potential to cause harm, which is dependent on how likely it is to start a fire and the resulting consequences, such as property damage or loss of life. Assessing the potential harm is the responsibility of the assessor, who must evaluate the possible outcomes of the hazard.

The risk of ignition is a key consideration. Still, the assessor must also consider the frequency of occurrence and the factors that could contribute to it, such as human behavior, environmental conditions, and equipment usage. The potential for fire spread is influenced by several factors, including how long the fire may continue to burn undetected and whether it can jeopardize escape routes. Other factors influencing this include building construction (such as combustible materials or insufficient compartmentalization) and its contents (like flammable or explosive substances that could act as fuel).

The fire risk assessment must meet the following criteria:

  • The assessment of fire risk should be comprehensive;
  • Provide significant conclusions and actions to minimize and mitigate the risk of fire;
  • Find any group of individuals at particular risk;
  • A written record (when you have five employees or more);
  • The plan should be reviewed regularly in response to changes in the facility, technical and organizational measures, work processes, and routines.

Five steps are involved in the fire risk assessment process.

  • Step 1: Identify Fire Hazards on Your Premises or Workplace
  • Step 2: Identify People at Risk
  • Step 3: Evaluate, Improve and Decide on the Adequacy of Current Fire Safety Measures
  • Step 4: Document Your Findings, Create an Emergency Plan, and Educate All Involved
  • Step 5: Regularly Review Your Fire Risk Assessments
Step 1: Identify Fire Hazards on Your Premises or Workplace - Fire Risk Assessment

Step 1: Identify Fire Hazards on Your Premises or Workplace

The first step in the fire risk assessment process involves identifying fire hazards within your establishment or workspace. Here’s what you need to look for:

  • Sources of Ignition: These are things that could potentially start a fire. Examples include open flames, heating equipment, or even specific industrial processes that generate heat or sparks. It’s important to list all potential ignition sources to fully understand where a fire could start.
  • Fuel Sources: These items can feed a fire, allowing it to spread or become more intense. This might include waste materials, display items, textiles, or other inventory items. Identifying these sources can help you understand what might fuel a fire if one were to start.
  • Oxygen Sources: Fire needs oxygen to burn, so identifying potential sources of oxygen is essential. This could include air conditioning systems or supplies of oxygen used for commercial or medical purposes. Be aware of areas where oxygen levels might be higher than usual in your establishment.
  • Structural Factors: Certain structural features of your building can contribute to the spread of fire. For example, flues and ducts, gaps in firewalls that lack fire stops, large expanses of flammable material, vacant attic spaces, or unusually long escape routes can all amplify the risk and impact of a fire. It’s vital to recognize these factors and consider them during your assessment.

By thoroughly identifying all possible fire hazards in this step, you lay a strong foundation for the rest of your fire risk assessment. This allows you to put effective measures in place to prevent fires and minimize their impact if they do occur.

Step 2: Identify the people who're at risk. - Fire Risk Assessment

Step 2: Identify the people who’re at risk.

The second step in the fire risk assessment process is to identify the individuals who may be particularly vulnerable in the event of a fire. This includes:

  • People Sleeping on the Premises might include residents in a multi-use building or employees working overnight shifts. These individuals could be unaware of a fire until it’s too late due to being asleep.
  • Large Groups of People: In spaces where many people gather, such as event venues or large offices, the sheer number of individuals can complicate evacuation efforts.
  • Unfamiliar Individuals: Visitors or new employees unfamiliar with the building’s layout may struggle to find emergency exits during a fire.
  • Individuals Exposed to Specific Fire Risks: People working in or near areas with identified fire hazards face a higher risk.
  • People with Impairments or Disabilities: Those with hearing, sight, or mobility impairments may need additional assistance during an evacuation.
  • Workers near Fire Hazards: Employees who work near identified fire dangers are naturally at a higher risk.
  • Lone Workers or Those in Isolated Areas: These individuals may not be promptly alerted to a fire, delaying their evacuation. Isolated areas could include storage spaces, rooftops, or remote parts of a large site.
  • Parents with Infants or Elderly People: These groups may need additional time or assistance to evacuate.
  • People with Slower Response Times: This could include people with certain medical conditions, cognitive impairments, or even those under the influence of medication or alcohol.
  • External Contractors, Temporary Workers, or Agency Staff: These individuals might not be familiar with the fire safety procedures of the premises.

By identifying who is most at risk, you can create more effective fire safety strategies tailored to those individuals’ needs, reducing the overall risk and improving safety outcomes in case of a fire.

Step 3: Evaluate, Improve, and Decide on the Adequacy of Current Fire Safety Measures - Fire Risk Assessment

Step 3: Evaluate, Improve, and Decide on the Adequacy of Current Fire Safety Measures

This stage involves assessing fire risks and the adequacy of current measures and considering improvements if necessary.

(1) Assess the risk of fire

Based on your observations and analysis during the risk assessment, classify the building’s fire risk (likelihood of ignition) into the following categories:

  • Low: Little risk of fire due to few combustible materials, absence of highly flammable substances, and minimal heat sources.
  • Medium: Fire could occur but is unlikely to spread rapidly due to the presence of combustible materials and heat sources.
  • High: High fire risk due to large combustible materials, highly flammable substances, or conditions that could allow the fire to spread rapidly.

(2) Identify the potential consequences of a fire

Considering the building’s structure, its occupants, and existing safety measures and procedures, determine the potential harm in case of a fire. Categories are:

Slight harmModerate harmExtreme harm
  • Slight Harm: No severe injuries or fatalities are expected in the event of a fire.
  • Moderate Harm: Injuries might occur to one or more occupants, but mass fatalities are unlikely.
  • Extreme Harm: There is a significant risk of severe injury or death to multiple occupants.

Remember to consider sleeping occupants when assessing the level of harm.

(3) Determine the risk rating

Using the results from steps (1) and (2) above, use the table below to determine the risk rating.

Potential consequences
if a fire was to occur>
Risk of a fire occurring
Slight harmModerate harmExtreme harm
LowTrivial riskTolerable riskModerate risk
MediumTolerable riskModerate riskSubstantial risk
HighModerate riskSubstantial riskIntolerable risk

Accordingly, it is considered that the risk to life from fire at this building is:


(4) Determine the Action level and timeframe

Using the table below, determine the action level and timescale for the risk rating from (3).

Risk LevelRequired Action & Timescale
TrivialNo need for immediate action or detailed record-keeping, but regular monitoring is recommended.
TolerableSignificant new controls aren’t required. Regular monitoring is needed, and affordable improvements may be considered.
ModerateEfforts should be focused on minimizing the risk. Risk reduction measures should be implemented within a specific timeline and monitored regularly.
SubstantialSignificant resources may be needed to reduce risk. Unoccupied buildings should remain so until the risk is reduced. If the building is occupied, immediate action is required.
IntolerableThe area (or building) shouldn’t be occupied until the risk is reduced. Immediate action is necessary.

If the existing fire safety measures are insufficient, consider how you could reduce or remove fire hazards. This could involve:

  • Replacing highly flammable materials with less flammable alternatives.
  • Separating flammable materials from ignition sources.
  • Implementing a strict no-smoking policy.
  • Reducing the time and distance of escape routes.
  • Providing additional escape routes.
  • Upgrading your fire alarm system.
  • Improving fire safety signage.
  • Considering active firefighting systems, such as sprinklers.
  • Appointing fire wardens.
  • Implementing fire safety training programs.

You can significantly reduce a fire’s risk and potential impact by evaluating and improving your current fire safety measures.

Step 4: Document Your Findings, Create an Emergency Plan, and Educate All Involved - Fire Risk Assessment

Step 4: Document Your Findings, Create an Emergency Plan, and Educate All Involved

In this phase, it’s essential to record your findings, develop an emergency response plan, and provide necessary information and training to everyone who could be affected.

All hazards and at-risk individuals identified in steps 1 and 2 should be documented. The measures taken in step 3 to mitigate these risks should also be recorded. This documentation should be completed using the appropriate fire safety risk assessment form specific to your business type. The types of premises for which dedicated forms are available include:

  • Large Places of Assembly
  • Offices
  • Residential Care Premises
  • Educational or Academic Premises
  • Small and Medium Place of Assembly
  • Sleeping Accommodation

If your premises do not fall into one of these categories, you can seek advice from your local safety authorities or relevant safety departments.

Following this, an emergency plan specific to your premises should be developed. This plan should outline the actions to be taken if there’s a fire within your property or in a nearby facility. Information on creating emergency plans can usually be sourced from your local fire service or online safety resources.

Finally, everyone involved should be informed about the identified fire risks, including employees and others who might be at risk. They should also be instructed on fire safety measures to manage these risks. Specific individuals, such as fire marshals or safety officers, may require additional training to handle emergency situations effectively. This step is crucial in ensuring everyone’s safety and equipping them with the necessary knowledge to respond appropriately in a fire emergency.

Step 5: Regularly Review Your Fire Risk Assessments - Fire Risk Assessment

Step 5: Regularly Review Your Fire Risk Assessments

It’s essential to conduct regular reviews of your fire risk assessments to ensure they remain up-to-date and accurately reflect the current risks in your premises. Risks can change for several reasons, and an outdated assessment can leave you ill-prepared to handle potential fire hazards.

If there has been a significant change in the level of risk at your premises, or if there’s been a close call, you should revisit and revise your fire risk assessment promptly.

Factors that might prompt a review include:

  • Alterations in the nature, type, and layout of the premises: Any physical modifications to the structure of the building or its usage can alter the fire risk and should be accounted for.
  • Changes in the number and type of individuals on the premises: A growth in staff size or a shift in demographics (e.g., more individuals with mobility issues) could affect how fires are handled.
  • Updates to equipment and plant layout: Introducing new machinery or reconfiguring current equipment could create new fire hazards or change the dynamics of existing ones.
  • Modifications in the on-site materials: A change in the volume or type of materials stored, especially if they are flammable or combustible, can dramatically alter the fire risk profile.
  • Introduction of new procedures and processes: The fire risks might also change if your operations change.
  • Changes in shift patterns: For instance, adding a night shift could change the dynamics of potential fire risks, including the number of people on-site and their ability to respond to a fire.

By routinely reviewing and updating your fire risk assessments, you can keep ahead of changing risks and ensure that your fire prevention strategies and emergency response plans are effective and suitable for your evolving workplace conditions.

Fire Risk Assessment Steps

The Role of Professional Assessors in Fire Risk Assessments

Professional assessors have a pivotal part in conducting fire risk assessments. They ensure that businesses fulfill legal obligations and enhance their fire safety measures. Here’s what you can anticipate from a professional assessor during a fire risk assessment:

1. Credentials and Proficiency

Choosing a professional assessor requires verifying their educational background and skillset. In the UK, for instance, assessors should have completed training accredited by the Fire Risk Assessment Competency Council (FRACC) or a similar recognized course.

They should also carry a track record of executing fire risk assessments for companies that operate in the same sector as yours. Moreover, assessors need to possess a profound understanding of the local fire safety regulations and standards.

2. Assessment Procedure

A professional assessor thoroughly evaluates your workplace during a fire risk assessment. They identify potential fire risks and examine the effectiveness of your current fire safety measures. Based on their evaluation, the assessor provides recommendations, such as upgrading fire safety equipment or enhancing evacuation paths. The evaluation also encompasses analyzing the building’s architectural design, including the materials utilized and the structural layout.

3. Record-Keeping and Reporting

Upon the conclusion of the assessment, the professional assessor delivers a comprehensive report encapsulating their findings and advice. This report contains a synopsis of the assessment, a catalog of pinpointed hazards, and an elaborate action plan for addressing them.

The report should also include a ranked list of suggestions, considering any financial or temporal restrictions. Proper documentation is crucial for proving adherence to regulations and for future reference if modifications are made to the workplace. In essence, employing a professional assessor aids businesses in complying with legal stipulations, enhancing fire safety measures, and safeguarding their staff and assets.

Fire Safety Assessment Process

How to Choose a Professional Fire Risk Assessor

Selecting a professional fire risk assessor is a significant step in guaranteeing your business’s safety and legal compliance. Here’s how you can approach this important decision:

1. Investigation and Qualifications

  • Membership in Professional Bodies and Accreditations: Search for assessors who are part of respected industry organizations and possess relevant certifications. This illustrates their dedication to maintaining high-quality standards and following best practices in the field of fire risk assessments.
  • Client Reviews and References: Review online feedback and references from past clients to gauge the assessor’s track record and reputation. This can provide insight into their reliability and quality of work.

2. Experience and Clientele References

  • Nature of Businesses Assessed: Seek an assessor with a history of working with businesses that mirror yours regarding sector and size. Their experience with similar businesses can be invaluable in understanding your unique fire safety needs.
  • Client Case Studies and Testimonials: Request for case studies and endorsements from previous clients to understand how the assessor has aided other businesses in improving their fire safety measures.

3. Price and Availability

  • Reasonable Pricing and Transparent Charges: Opt for assessors who offer reasonable prices and transparent fee structures without hidden costs. This helps ensure you get value for your money and can budget accurately.
  • Adaptable Schedules and Prompt Reporting: Select a flexible assessor to accommodate your schedule and provide prompt, comprehensive reports. This helps minimize disruption to your business operations and ensures you can quickly implement any recommended changes.

Conducting fire risk assessments with professional assessors can help prevent accidents, mitigate liability, and result in long-term financial savings.

Fire risk assessment is a systematic process designed to identify potential fire hazards, evaluate the associated risks, and determine appropriate measures to eliminate or control these risks. It is an integral part of ensuring the safety of a building or premises and its occupants. The main objectives are to reduce the likelihood of a fire starting, protect people and property, and ensure compliance with local fire safety regulations.

The assessment process involves identifying sources of ignition and fuel, evaluating fire detection and prevention measures, and reviewing fire escape routes and emergency procedures. The findings are then recorded and reviewed regularly or when significant changes occur in the premises.

The fire risk assessment process generally consists of the following steps:

  • Identify the Fire Hazards: This includes any ignition source, flammable materials, and sources of oxygen that could fuel a fire.
  • Identify People at Risk: Evaluate who could be at risk in the event of a fire. This might include employees, visitors, or particularly vulnerable people, such as the elderly or those with disabilities.
  • Evaluate, Remove, or Reduce the Risks: Analyze the risk associated with potential fire hazards. Where possible, eliminate or reduce these risks. This can involve implementing fire prevention measures, improving fire detection and warning systems, and ensuring adequate escape routes.
  • Record Your Findings, Prepare an Emergency Plan, and Provide Training: Document the findings of your assessment, prepare an emergency plan, and inform and train all relevant personnel on fire safety procedures.
  • Review and Update the Fire Risk Assessment Regularly: Fire risk assessments should be a living document that is reviewed and updated regularly, especially if there are significant changes to your premises or operations that could affect fire safety.

A fire risk assessment checklist is a tool used to systematically identify and evaluate potential fire hazards in a premises, evaluate the effectiveness of existing fire safety measures, and determine what actions need to be taken to mitigate the identified risks. It typically covers areas such as:

  • Fire hazards: Identification of potential sources of ignition and combustible materials.
  • People at risk: Identification of people who could be at risk in the event of a fire, including employees, visitors, and people with specific vulnerabilities.
  • Fire safety measures: Evaluation of existing fire safety measures, such as fire detection and warning systems, fire extinguishers, escape routes, and fire doors.
  • Fire prevention: Assessment of how well fire risks are being managed, including control of ignition sources and combustible materials.
  • Training and information: Review of training provided to staff, fire safety signage, and information available to building occupants.
  • Emergency routes and exits: Verification of the adequacy, signage, and maintenance of emergency escape routes and exits.
  • Fire detection and warning systems: Evaluation of the suitability, maintenance, and testing of fire detection and warning systems.
  • Firefighting equipment: Check on the availability, suitability, maintenance, and testing of firefighting equipment.
  • Record keeping: Ensuring that the findings of the assessment, actions taken, and any incidents are properly documented.
  • Review: Regular review and updating of the fire risk assessment, particularly in response to changes in the premises or procedures, or after an incident or near miss.

Remember, this is a general list, and a checklist should be tailored to the specifics of your premises and activities. Also, a checklist is only a tool to aid in the assessment and does not replace the need for a comprehensive and competent fire risk assessment.

The responsibility for carrying out a fire risk assessment typically lies with the person or people who control or part of the premises. This is often referred to as the ‘Responsible Person’. In a workplace, this is usually the employer or business owner.

However, this responsibility can also fall onto:

  • The owner of the premises or the building manager in a shared building.
  • The occupier, such as a self-employed person or voluntary organization if they have any control.
  • Any other person with control over premises or part of premises, such as a facilities manager, building manager, managing agent, or risk assessor.
  • In multi-occupied buildings, there may be more than one responsible person.

Regardless of who the responsible person is, it’s important to note that they cannot delegate the responsibility of fire safety. Even if they hire a professional risk assessor, the final accountability remains with the responsible person. If the responsible person is not competent to carry out the risk assessment, they should appoint a ‘competent person’ to help, such as a professional risk assessor.

The responsible person must ensure the fire risk assessment is carried out and reviewed regularly and that the necessary changes are implemented. This includes informing and training staff about the risks and actions they must take in an emergency.

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) in the United States develops and maintains numerous codes and standards related to fire safety, including those that pertain to fire risk assessment.

NFPA 551: Guide for the Evaluation of Fire Risk Assessments is the document that provides guidance on the principles and techniques of fire risk assessment. It is designed to help users understand and apply the risk assessment methods found in NFPA codes and standards.

Another significant standard is NFPA 101: Life Safety Code, which outlines comprehensive building design and operation requirements to promote safety and prevent fire-related injuries and fatalities. It includes guidelines on conducting a risk assessment in its performance-based design option.

Please note that these documents are updated regularly and that it’s important to consult the most current version. Additionally, the specific NFPA code or standard that applies can depend on the specific context, building type, or industry. Please consult the NFPA or a fire safety professional for comprehensive and up-to-date information.


The fire risk assessment process is a critical endeavor ensuring people’s and property’s safety and well-being. Businesses and individuals can effectively evaluate and manage fire risks by following a step-by-step approach, from identifying hazards to implementing control measures. Our comprehensive guide has provided valuable insights and practical guidance on conducting a fire risk assessment.

By embracing this process and taking appropriate actions based on the findings, we can create safer environments and mitigate the potentially devastating consequences of fires. Prioritizing fire safety is an ongoing commitment that safeguards lives, instills confidence, and promotes a culture of preparedness.