What is the safety?
The condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury is Called Safety.
What is the accident?
It is an unexpected or unplanned event that may or may not result in injury or damage or property loss or death.
What is the risk?
In probability of the realization of the potential for loss or damage or injury.
What is the hazard?
The inherent property of a substance or an occurrence that has the potential to cause loss or damage property, person, or environment.
What is the incident?
It is an event that represents the deviation from the intended sequence of designed steps.
What is the injury?
It is defined as a harmful condition sustained by the body as a result of an accident.
What is safety policy?
Any company has a social and legal obligation to provide a safe and healthy working environment for all his improvement to all its employees.
What is safety tag?
A safety tag can be defined as a surface made of cardboard or paperboard on which local English language letters are written for warning safety instructions to employees.
What is safety program?
A safety program can be defined as five methods by which accidents can be prevented easily they are engineering, education, enforcement, enthusiasm, and example safety programs are plain-spoken and carry out specific legal steps.
What is safety audit?
The safety audit is the process that identifies unsafe conditions and unsafe acts the plant and recommended safety improvement. Walk through it evaluates the unsafe condition noticeable to the naked eye during work through the plant. ( stores, civil work, erection work)
Inter mediate-more details to study and review of plant design and plant operation.
Comprehensive –it evaluates the safety factors in the plant on the base engineering, analysis, testing, measurement.
What is attitude?
Attitude may be described as continuous behaviour. If man’s behaviour is good, then his action will be either correct or safe.
What is emergency planning?
Emergency planning can be defined as a control measure. It can control the accidents safeguard people and provide information to media.
What is work at height?
Any work above 2 meters from the ground is caused work at height.
What is work permit system?
Work permit system is a “ written documents” for permission to undertake a job by area in charge, or it is written document issued by the area in charge to the performer to undertake the specific job.
What is confined space?
An area which is small and enclosed or an area where one entry and exits or where a man cannot work comfortably in any location is caused confined space.
What is excavation?
Marking a hole or tunnel by digging the ground by man or machine is called excavation.
What is scaffolding?
It is a temporary platform constructed for supporting both men and materials and working safety at a construction site.
What is gas cutting?
The process of joining of cutting metals by using oxygen and combustible gas is called gas cutting.
What is sandblasting?
The process of removing rust dust, dirt, scales and old prints from the old surface using compressed air is called sandblasting.
What is welding?
Welding is a fabrication process whereby two or more parts are fused together by means of heat, pressure or both forming a join as the parts cool. Welding is usually used on metals and thermoplastics but can also be used on wood. The completed welded joint may be referred to as a weldment.
What is UEL?
The maximum proportion of vapour, gasses, and dust in the air which proposal the flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition is called UEL.
What is painting?
The process after sandblasting is called painting.
What is LEL?
The minimum concentration of vapour, gasses, and dust in air below which propagation of flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition is called LEL.
What is manual handling?
The process of lifting, carrying and stacking materials by men is called manual handing.
What is grinding?
A grinder is a portable machine with a wheel guard in position to reduce the danger.
What is housekeeping?
Housekeeping means not only cleanness but also the orderly arrangement of operations, tools, equipment’s storage facilities and suppliers.
What is personal protective equipment?
It is an equipment used to project the person from hazards such dust, dirt, fumes, and sparks etc. It is the barrier between hazard and person.
What is Crane?
A tall machine is used for moving heavy objects by suspending them from a projecting arm with a hook.
What is forklift truck?
The forklift truck is designed to handle heavy loads.
What is JSA?
The procedure of analyzing jobs for the specific purpose of finding the hazards and developing.
What are the duties of a supervisor?
- He has to instruct these workers about the work methods and procedures.
- He has to maintain discipline among the workers
- He has to supply necessary materials
- He has to control quality and cost of the job
- He has to guide has workers in doing a job in the correct and safe way
- He has to supply suitable personal protective equipment to his workers
- He should conduct periodical safety meetings.
- He should conduct a safety inspection of his working area
- He should know about the firefighting equipment
- He should know investigate the accident and find out the cause of the accident
What are the duties of a safety officer?
- Prepare toolbox talk
- Prepare monthly statistics
- Prepare the checklist
- Accident reports
- Management meetings
- Arrange the safety classes/training
- Arrange monthly safety bulletin
- Inspection of fire extinguisher
- Arrange first aid training classes
- Arrange safety competitions like quiz, slogan, poster
- Competitions exhibition etc.
What are the precautions for welding?
- Remove all combustion material from the place of welding
- Clear the work area and wooden cover floor with fireproof mats. (welding mechanic should be kept within the visibility of the welders.
- Erect fire resistance screen around the work
- All welding cables should be fully insulted
- All welding mics shall be double earthed
- Welding area should be dry and free from water
- Keep the fire extinguisher/sand really
- Use leather hand gloves, goggles, and helmets
- Switch off the power when welding is stopped
- Do not allow the helper to do welding
- Do not shift he welding cable unless the electric power is switched off.
- Do not allow the helper to carry the welding. The terminal of the welding cables should be provided 3-cable with lugs and kept tight.Oxygen hose in black and acetylene hose in red in colour as per standard
- Nrv of the blowtorches should be maintained properly avoid backfire
- Welders should be trained properly
- Cylinders should be stored in a cold dry place away bottom heat and direct sunlight.
- Proper housekeeping, good ventilation in the working area
- Smoking should be avoided from the welding area
- Hose connection should be proper made
- Barricade the work area and put a sign board
- Rolling of cylinders should be avoided
- Flashback arrestor should be attached to each cylinder
- Any leakage of the cylinder should be kept separately
What are the precautions for gas cutting?
- Keep the fire extinguisher nearby
- Keep fire watch nearby
- Remove all combustible from work area
- Use all necessary PPE
- Never put welding gas cylinder inside a confined space
- Hoses shall not be laid in pathways
- The gas cutting torch should have flashback arrestors
- Gas test to be done to check for the presence of flammable gas in site.
- Good housekeeping and ventilation necessary in working area.
- Hose connections should be made properly
What are the precautions for “sandblasting”?
- The compressed airline, hoses and another fitting must instalment firmly without leaks the hose.
- Misuse compress are should be avoided
- A fresh air hood or mask must be worn
- Housekeeping can be done periodically
- Fire extinguish her shall be kept nearby
- Dust mask ear plugs/muffs should be used
- No sandblasting shall be done on top of floating roof tank in service.
- Use goggles & face shield
- Sandblasting operation must be gas free
What is the precaution for “painting”?
- All flammable material should be cleared from the work area
- The required protective clothing and equipment must be worn
- Cartridge respirators shall always be worn
- Adequate ventilation is necessary
- Adequate washing facilities must be readily available
- Barrier cream should be applied to the skin
What are the hazards in welding?
- Eye injury
- Burn injury arc realisation
- Electrical shock light arc radiation
- Heat, light, and radiation affect heat fume
- Poisonous gases chipped price of weld metal
- Explosion scattering
- Noise sparking
- Flying sand
What are hazards and injuries in manual handling?
- Cutting fingers due to sharp edges
- Burns due to the handling of hot articles
- Foot injuries due to dropped articles
- Slipped disc due to improper posture in lifting on the object
- Strains to wrist or fingers
- Sprains, wounds hernias, fractures
- Cause of accidents in manual handling?
- Improper lifting
- Carrying too heavy loads
- Improper gripping
- Failure to use PPE
- Lifting greasy, oily and irregular objects
- Poor physique
What precautions are needed to avoid the accident in manhandling
- Stand at the safe distance from the load
- Sharp edge and burns are removed before lifting a
- PPE such as safety gloves and safety shoes are to be
- If the weight is too heavy for one person to lift, then he has to seek the assistance.
- The pathway is not blocked by obstacles while carrying the load.
- The different actions, movements, and forces necessary while carrying the load.
- Modify the task by using hooks and crowbars.
- Mechanical equipment like cranes shall be used.
- Modify the objects
- Change the way things are used.
- Tips for manuals handling?
- Clear the path
- Move in close to the load
- Secure your grip
- Hold your head upright
- Maintain normal curves of the spine
- Power the lift with legs and body weight
- Don’t twist
What are the causes of accidents in mechanical handling?
- The sudden failure of wire rope or a chain
- Slipping of the load from the sling
- Swinging of the load at the time of lifting
- The load sometimes hits the man
What are the accidents in “poor housekeeping”?
- Men getting hit by falling from overhead
- Men slipping as greasy, wet or dirty floor
- Men failing in open tank without a cover on the level floor
- Accidents due to poor lighting
- Fire accidents due to faulty electrical wires
What are the advantages of good housekeeping?
- It helps in the reduction of accidents including fire accidents
- It saves the property damages
- It improves employee morale
- Better productivity
- The working area becomes presentable
- Human energy is conserved
- Visitors are very much satisfied
- The burden of the supervisor is reduced
How to care and maintenance of hand tools?
- Tools must be kept clean and free from corrosion
- Keep metal parts lightly oiled
- Remove burrs from edges of tools and heads of chisels.
- Tools which are not in use must be stored separately
- A good worker regularly inspects his tools
- Do not use tools without handles
How to prevent accidents of “power tools”?
- The operators should wear face shields or safety glasses
- Power tools should be placed in the storeroom after use
- Power tools should have protected by guards
- Pneumatic hoses or electric cables of power tools should not pass through passageways.
- The electrical power tools should be properly earthed
- Never horseplay with the hose of pneumatic tools
- Power tools machines should be maintained and operated properly.
What are the causes of accidents of “hard tools”?
- Due to wrong way using tools.
- Due to the defective condition of tools
- Due to the failure of using right tools for the right job
- Due to the wrong way of carrying tools
- Due to strong of tools in safety
What precautions are necessary for electrical work?
- All electrical installations shall be as per standard electricity rules
- Only competent persons should handle the electrical equipment.
- The equipment should be earthed properly
- All temporary electric lines should be drawn at least above man’s height
- Cable should be completely insulted
- Cable should not have any joints
- Only connection for one point
- Good housekeeping in the area
- Fire protection equipment to be kept nearby
- Use rubber gloves and rubber boots
- Use good quality of wire
- Power isolation close to the job
- Use three pin plug instead of loose wire
- Never operate any electrical equipment with wet hands
- Never stand wet surface while working electrical equipment
- During thunderstorm do not stand under the tree
- The proper signboard is necessary
- No person shall work on any live electrical conductor
- The switch shall only be put on by the person who switched it off
What are the hazards in construction?
- Fall of the person from the top and getting injured
- Fall of objects from the top and below person injury
- Fall of materials from the top and damaged
- The person falls into the excavated pit
- The collapse of soil and below person get an injury or may
- Damage to ug cables and sewage pipe
- The collapse of scaffolding and person fall from a height, get an injury
- Electrical shock
- Fire and explosion
- Burn injury
- Health and lung problems
- Snakes Bite
- Poisonous gas
- Foreign body in the eye
What are the Causes of the accident in construction?
- Erection equipment failure
- Falling of persons from the height
- Electrical shocks
- Improper lighting
- Non-stop working by worker
- Up safe work methods
- Collapsing of the earth during trench excavation
- Failure of use safety equipment
- Working a height without a safety belt
What are the General safety precautions in construction?
- Adequate first aid equipment should be kept ready
- Adequate fire fighting equipment should be available
- All general electrical rules should be followed
- Suitable lighting arrangements should be necessary at night work
- Workmen at height should be wearing safety belts
- Workmen handling cement should be provided with goggles, rubber gloves and rubber boots by nose mask.
- The moving parts of grinding machines used construction site should be covered with guards
- The moving parts of grinding machines used construction site should be covered with guards
- Excavated material should not be kept near the excavated
- Very short duration of work red flags must be hoisted and more duration red banners must be stretched
- Defective tools should not be used
- The worker should not carry tools in his hands when climbing a ladder
- Excavation should be guarded by suitable fencing
How to erect scaffolding?
- It should be erected on levels firm ground
- It erected by trained/skilled person
- It is constructed using metal pipes and wooden boards
- It should be design and constructed from the good and sound material
- Not to be erected on loose earth
- Clamps should be fixed
- Properly bracing
- The sole plate is necessary the base of the vertical pipe
- Safety precaution of scaffold?
- Wooden board not be painted
- The wooden board should not to any cracks
- Check for rust in pipes/clamps
- Clamps should be fixed and good quality
- Boards thickness should be 3.4 cms and no bending
- The construction must be rigid, properly based
- Use of good and sound materials
- The wooden bellies have not joint
- Vertical poles should not be more than 6 feet
- Chains, ropes used for the suspension of scaffoldings
- Never throw any materials from a height
- Use safety harness while working at above 6 feet
- Properly ties to be an arrangement
What controls measures are necessary for confined space?
- Enter with airline bar sets
- Use 24v flameproof hand lamps
- A hole watch to be kept near the manhole
- Keep firefighting equipment ready
- Gas test to be done to check for oxygen level
- Provide blowers
- Don’t smoke in confined space
- Use ropes and harness
- The spaces clean before entry
- Use non-sparking tools it there is any risk of flammable vapours being present.
Safety rules when using ladders?
- The footwear is not greasy, oily and muddy and has a good grip on the rungs.
- When climbing or coming down a ladder should be facing the ladder side and had on with both hands.
- Carry light tools in pockets in a shoulder bag.
- Hold on with at least new hand if the use of both hands then, use safety belt
- Never climb higher than the third rung from the top on straight or second tired from the top of the extension ladder.
- Stepladder must be fully open and the divider locked
- The metal ladder shall not be used near electrical equipment.
- The metal ladder shall not be placed on firm footing and at an angle of 75
- Any ladder found a defect in any way should be marked do not use
- The ladder shall not be placed in a box or drum.
- Rubber protection on head and heel of a ladder is necessary.
Safety rules ensuring oxygen cylinders?
- Oxygen cylinders should not be kept near combustible materials.
- Oxygen cylinders should not be handled with grassy hands or gloves.
- Oxygen cylinders and their fittings should not be tested with oil based soap solution.
- Oxygen cylinders and other combustible gas cylinders should not be stored together.
- The top cover of the cylinder should be kept in position and screwed safety when not in use.
- Cylinders should not be used as rollers for moving materials
- Oxygen must not be used for ventilating confined spaces.
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Who needs these qualifications?
Employers are responsible for providing safe and healthy workplace conditions as well as the right systems and methods for safe activities. Nevertheless employees also have a vital part to play in the equation. They need the correct knowledge and the right attitude, which demands proper training in the basics of health and safety, as well as specific training for individual tasks.